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Communication Topic 16: Interpretation of Signals

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1 Communication Topic 16: Interpretation of Signals
Biology in Focus, HSC Course Glenda Childrawi, Margaret Robson and Stephanie Hollis

2 DOT Point(s) explain, using specific examples, the importance of correct interpretation of sensory signals by the brain for the coordination of animal behaviour

3 Introduction It is very important for correct interpretation of signals by the brain for the coordination of animal behaviour. Stimuli must be received and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord before being interpreted and a response given.

4 Introduction A variety of reasons can cause a ‘short circuit’. Here are a few: Lack of stimulus Trauma Lack of oxygen Legal/illegal drug reaction Disease Pollution Age related damage or deterioration Choose one of the specific examples in the next few slides to write down as a specific example.

5 Multiple Sclerosis MS is a autoimmune disease in which there is an immune attack by the body on its own myelin protein. Gradually the myelin sheaths in the central nervous system are destroyed and become hard substances called scleroses.

6 Multiple Sclerosis As the insulating layer becomes non-functional, the impulses are short circuited and finally conduction of the impulse ceases. Some common symptoms include: problems controlling muscles (weakness, clumsiness, urinary incontinence) and visual disturbances (including blindness).

7 Alcohol, anaesthetics and sedatives
These can all impair the transmission of messages. They all block nerve impulses by reducing the plasma membrane’s permeability to sodium ions. If there is no sodium (Na+) entry, there is no action potential-no nerve impulse.

8 Alcohol, anaesthetics and sedatives
Some common symptoms include: poor coordination of movements, lack of concentration, retarded reflexes, tiredness, blurred vision and slurred speech.

9 Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy may be caused by a temporary lack of oxygen to a baby during a difficult delivery. Cerebral palsy is a neuromuscular damage, to which the voluntary muscles lack coordination due to brain cell damage.

10 Cerebral Palsy The brain cells are unable to transmit a message to the muscles and as a result the muscles can not be voluntarily controlled. Some common symptoms include: impairments in movement, speech, hearing and vision.

11 Rubella Rubella is also known as German measles. It is caused by the rubella virus. The disease causes a fine rash, fever and sometimes, upper respiratory tract infection. No more trouble than the common cold.

12 Rubella If however, a woman contracts rubella in the first three months of pregnancy, the virus may pass through the placenta to the developing baby. Damage to the brain and spinal cord leads to a lack of transmission of nerve signals to various organs. The baby could then be affected by rubella congenital syndrome.

13 Rubella Some common symptoms include: cataracts, congenital glaucoma and retinopathy of the eye, loss of hearing, congenital heart disease, as well as problems with development of the brain, spinal cord, spleen, liver and possibly bones.

14 Age-related Damage or deterioration
The human brain reaches its maximum size in young adulthood. From then on the neurones may be damaged and die, contributing to a gradual loss of weight and volume of the brain. In total, the change is minimal.

15 Age-related Damage or deterioration
Some common symptoms include: decline in reaction time and speed of decision making together with loss of memory.

16 Congratulations! You are officially through the content of HSC Biology!!!!!!

17 Homework -Study for the HSC Exam!

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