Presentation on theme: "After Caesar – the Roman Empire The Second Triumverate After Caesar’s death, his 18 year old adopted son, Octavian, works to destroy all of Caesar’s enemies."— Presentation transcript:
After Caesar – the Roman Empire The Second Triumverate After Caesar’s death, his 18 year old adopted son, Octavian, works to destroy all of Caesar’s enemies. Caesar’s friend, Mark Antony, a general, helps him. They rule Rome as the Second Triumverate. –Along with Lepidus They make a list of 100 senators and set out to kill them, Brutus/Cassius commit suicide.
Antony and Cleopatra Antony is married to Octavian’s sister, but meets Cleopatra, causing a divorce. Antony goes on a “business” trip to Egypt. Octavian plots against him. Octavian tells the Senate that Antony plans to rule Rome, from Egypt. The Senate sends Octavian to destroy Antony. 31 BC, Battle of Actium – Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra, they commit suicide.
Octavian rules Rome Octavian gives himself title of “First Citizen” Senate offers him title of “Augustus” meaning “exalted one” Augustus now ruled Rome. He had total power, given to him by the Senate, who met anyway for tradition. The Roman Empire now rules the known world. Britain to Asia, Germany to North Aftrica.
The Pax Romana: An Overview
1.The Roman Peace Defined 27BC to 180AD, 207 years of peace and prosperity. The “Roman Lake” 90 million people, Rome – 1 million. Improvements made for the people of Rome Trade? Public Buildings? Civil Service?
Life in the Roman Empire Two Cultural Movements of Rome –Epicureanism –Stoicism Livy and Virgil – Roman Writers How did Roman Laws bring the empire together under one government?
Livy Historian He wrote at the time of Augustus His works tell the story of Rome’s founding through the Republic
Virgil Wrote the Aeneid The epic poem about the founding of Rome (Romulus and Remus) and Rome’s sacred mission and destiny to conquer and organize the world
Roman Law Became the foundation of the legal systems in all European countries conquered by Rome
Principles of Roman law that still have meaning today According to natural law, all men are equal Ignorance of the law does not excuse No one is compelled to defend a cause against his will No one suffers a penalty for what he thinks The burden of proof is on the party accusing not on the party denying In inflicting penalties, the age and inexperience of the guilty party must be taken into account
Life in the Roman Empire What were the life of the Rich and Poor like? Did the government take care of their people?
Life of the lower classes meant living in a tenement, using public bathrooms, and eating at a thermopolium (luncheonette) since your home did have kitchen facilities.
Tenement Dumping waste
Roman latrine and sewer
The yellow sponge
Life at the top Life of the Upper Classes meant living in fancy homes in the cities and villas (country homes). They had slaves Enjoyed banquets with dishes such as parrot-tongue pie, boiled ostrich, tree fungi in fish-fat sauce. Their homes had libraries, art galleries, swimming pools, and athletic courts.
The Emperors of the Pax Romana
Augustus 27 BCE – 14 AD
Policies of Augustus 1.Civil Service jobs for the poor. 2.The Denarius 3.Free trade in the Empire 4.Roads 5.Citizenship extended to everyone. 6.Aqueducts 7.The “capital of the world” –“I found Rome in brick and left it in marble.”
Appian Way Denarius Roman mail carriers
Pantheon – a Roman dome. Temple dedicated to all the gods
Tiberius Age 55 when he began to rule Rome A commander in Augustus army. Improved tax collection and tax system. Spent the last 11 years of his life on the island of Capri until he was smothered with a pillow while he slept 14 – 37 AD
Caligula Tiberius’ nephew Psychotic Skilled dueler, gladiator, charioteer. He proposed his horse be named consul He was murdered by the Praetorian Guard What does his reign say about the Roman Empire?
Claudius Uncle of Caligula who continued reforming the government Set up court system and public justice. Conquered part of Britain & extended citizenship in Spain & Gaul Poisoned by his wife (niece) Agrippina
Nero Agrippina’s son He started persecuting the Christians as part of the “entertainment”. Loved poetry, music, the arts. Accused of burning Rome “while Rome burned, Nero fiddled.” Condemned to death by the Senate. He had his mother killed & he committed suicide
Year of the Four (Army) Emperors Controlling the army is the key to rule Each emperor was chosen by various army factions Galba was the first to rule and die, followed by Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian who starts a new dynasty – the Flavian dynasty Galba OthoVitellius Vespasian
Ended the civil war, restored finances and reformed the army Started building a giant sport arena later called the Coliseum
Titus Son of Vespasian Opened the Colosseum In 79 AD Mt Vesuvius erupted burying Pompeii and Herculaneum His brother Domitian succeeded him
Domitian Second son of Vespasian Greatly disliked by the Senators and upper classes Murdered in a palace revolt
Five Good Emperors (Adoptive Emperors) Nerva, first of the Good Emperors Senator who was appointed emperor by the Senate Began the custom of adopting an heir Postal service, aqueducts, treasury, roads, stored grain. Gave land to the poor
Trajan Great military leader. He extended the empire to its greatest limit. Trajan’s Column
Hadrian Hadrian’s Wall Put down a Jewish revolt in Jerusalem. Loved literature and the arts, sponsored them with money
Empire under Hadrian
Antoninus Pius Expanded education and welfare system. Most prosperous of the emperors. Trade flourished
Marcus Aurelius The Stoic philosopher emperor who wrote “Meditations” Increased citizenship, “an attack on Rome is an attack on us.” Champion of the poor, founded schools, orphanages, hospitals. Pax Romana ends with his death