Presentation on theme: "Japan The Growth of Japanese Civilization Japan’s Location Japan lies east of China; name means “land of the rising sun” Closest neighbor is 120 miles."— Presentation transcript:
The Growth of Japanese Civilization Japan’s Location Japan lies east of China; name means “land of the rising sun” Closest neighbor is 120 miles over water, Korea 500 miles of water separate it from China Geography of Japan Consists of about 3,000 islands in a 12,000- mile archipelago –The largest Island is Honshu Varied climate, but little land for farming –The first culture will arise on the Yamato Plain
The Growth of Japanese Civilization Early Japan The earliest people were found around 57AD –They were thought to be from the Korean Peninsula
The Jomon Found originally around 30,000 BC Jomon literally means “cord people’ –This was due to the type of art they made The first people were Nomads Had exquisite Art techniques –The art should have not been able to be made until centuries later Factors that will help the rise of civilization –Global Warming –Development of Complex Cities
The Yayoi Displaced immigrants from Korea and China They brought the technology of Bronze, Iron and Shinto with them Permanently destroy the way of life of the Jomon Developed clans –Clans vs. Tribes
Shinto Many different clans worshipped own gods This early religion later called Shinto— “the way of the gods” Shinto worshipers respect forces of nature, ancestors, and kami Kami—divine spirits dwelling in nature: tree, rock, waterfall
Yamato Their clan will grow in power and eventually take over the islands –Will be noted for Kofun or mound tombs They develop the earliest Japanese State –The Yamato The Paekche (Chinese) will want an alliance and for this they provide some new imports including, writing, Confucianism, and Buddhism
Yamato Period: “Great Kings” era Began promoting the adoption of Chinese culture: Confucianism. Language (kanji characters). Buddhist sects. Chinese art & architecture. Government structure. Began promoting the adoption of Chinese culture: Confucianism. Language (kanji characters). Buddhist sects. Chinese art & architecture. Government structure.
Japanese Culture Buddhism in Japan Japanese learn Chinese ideas, customs from contact with Korea Buddhism spreads widely in Japan, mixes with Shinto practices Cultural Borrowing from China Chinese ideas, practices gain wide currency in Japan as result Japanese adopt Chinese writing, art, and ways of everyday living Japan does not copy China’s civil-service system
Prince Shotoku: Will rule the Yamato as regent –Will eventually take power Decides that the Chinese are doing right and adopts almost all Chinese policies Takes the Name of Tenno ( which means heavenly emperor)
Prince Shotoku: Adopted Chinese culture and Confucianism. Buddhist sects allowed to develop. Created a new government structure: 17 Article Constitution in 604. First form of Japanese writing
Heian Period: Characteristics: Growth of large landed estates. Arts & literature of China flourished. Elaborate court life highly refined ETIQUETTE. Personal diaries The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon 10c Great novel The Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki Shikibu 1000 pgs. Moving away from Chinese models in religion, the arts, and government. Characteristics: Growth of large landed estates. Arts & literature of China flourished. Elaborate court life highly refined ETIQUETTE. Personal diaries The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon 10c Great novel The Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki Shikibu 1000 pgs. Moving away from Chinese models in religion, the arts, and government.
Heian Period: Cultural Borrowing 1.Chinese writing. 2.Chinese artistic styles. 3.Buddhism in the form of ZEN. 4.BUT, not the Chinese civil service system! 1.Chinese writing. 2.Chinese artistic styles. 3.Buddhism in the form of ZEN. 4.BUT, not the Chinese civil service system!
Heian Court Dress
The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon (diary)
Tale of Genji ( first novel)
Tale of Genji Scroll (first novel)
Lady Murasaki Shikibu She contributed much to the Japanese script known as kana, while men wrote with Chinese characters, kanji.
These new changes lead to Feudal Japan
Minamoto Yoritomo Founded the Kamakura Shogunate:
Feudal Society The emperor reigned, but did not always rule!
FeudalismFeudalism Japan: A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service. Japan: Shogun Daimyo Samurai Peasant Land - Shoen Protection Loyalty Food
Seppuku: Ritual Suicide Kaishaku – his “seconds” It is honorable to die in this way.
Full Samurai Attire
Early Mounted Samurai Warriors
Underpinnings: Basic Steps in Self Defense A COTTON BREECH CLOUT A COTTON BREECH CLOUT that extended up over the chest was the basic undergarment of a samurai’s costume A SHORT SLEEVED KIMONO A SHORT SLEEVED KIMONO, or “armor robe,” was tied snugly at the waist with a special knot (lower right)
BILLOWIN G PANTALOO NS, BILLOWIN G PANTALOO NS,worn over the armor robe, fitted loosely in the legs to allow freedom of movement STURDY SHINGUAR DS STURDY SHINGUAR DS of cloth or leather were reinforced with strips of iron to give protection from the front AN EXQUISITE BROCADE AN EXQUISITE BROCADE, richly worked with a design of peonies, was one of the extravagant materials used in an armor robe that may have been made for a 14 th Century imperial prince
Modern-Day “Samurai Warriors”
FeudalismFeudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service. Europe: King Lord Knight Peasant Land - Fief Protection Loyalty Food
European knight Samurai Warrior vs. Medieval Warriors
Knight’s Armor Samurai Armor vs. Medieval Warriors
Zen Buddhism A Japanese variation of the Mahayana form of Buddhism, which came from India through China. It reinforced the Bushido values of mental and self- discipline.
Mongol “Invasions ” of Japan 4,400 ships and 140,000 men, but kamikaze kamikaze winds stopped them.
Ashikaga Age: ► Shoguns fought for power. a Laws are unclear. a Less efficient than the Kamakura. a Armies of samurai protected the country.
Main Gate of Hiroshima Castle
Caernorfon Castle, Wales
Warwick Castle, England
The Age of the Warring States: ( ) Castles built on hills in different provinces. Power shifts from above to below. Europeans arrive in Japan bringing firearms & Christianity. Christianity & foreign trade flourish.
Oda Nobunaga ( ) Banishes the last Ashikaga shogun. Unifies a large part of Japan. Banishes the last Ashikaga shogun. Unifies a large part of Japan.
Catholic Jesuits in Japan [First Catholic Missionaries in Asia] St. Francis Xavier [First Catholic Missionaries in Asia]
Toyotomi Hideyoshi ( ) Becomes suspicious of European territorial ambitions. Orders all European missionaries expelled from Japan. Tries to invade Korea, but fails.
First Christian Martyrs (1597): Shrine in Nagasaki Today
Tokugawa Ieyasu ( ) Appointed shogun by the Emperor. Appointed shogun by the Emperor. Four-class system laid down with marriage restricted to members of the same class! Four-class system laid down with marriage restricted to members of the same class! § Warriors. § Farmers. § Artisans. § Merchants.
Tokugawa Shogunate Period Japan closed off to all trade [except to the Dutch and Chinese]. § The Dutch were restricted to a small island in Nagasaki harbor. Japanese Christians persecuted and Christianity is forbidden. The government is centralized with all power in the hands of the shogun. Domestic trade flourishes. Towns, esp. castle towns, increase. Merchant class becomes rich! New art forms haiku poetry, kabuki theater.