2The Growth of Japanese Civilization Japan’s LocationJapan lies east of China; name means “land of the rising sun”Closest neighbor is 120 miles over water, Korea500 miles of water separate it from ChinaGeography of JapanConsists of about 3,000 islands in a 12,000-mile archipelagoThe largest Island is HonshuVaried climate, but little land for farmingThe first culture will arise on the Yamato Plain
4The Growth of Japanese Civilization Early JapanThe earliest people were found around 57ADThey were thought to be from the Korean Peninsula
5The Jomon Found originally around 30,000 BC Jomon literally means “cord people’This was due to the type of art they madeThe first people were NomadsHad exquisite Art techniquesThe art should have not been able to be made until centuries laterFactors that will help the rise of civilizationGlobal WarmingDevelopment of Complex Cities
9Shinto Many different clans worshipped own gods This early religion later called Shinto—“the way of the gods”Shinto worshipers respect forces of nature, ancestors, and kamiKami—divine spirits dwelling in nature: tree, rock, waterfall
10YamatoTheir clan will grow in power and eventually take over the islandsWill be noted for Kofun or mound tombsThey develop the earliest Japanese StateThe YamatoThe Paekche (Chinese) will want an alliance and for this they provide some new imports including, writing, Confucianism, and Buddhism
11Yamato Period: 300-710 “Great Kings” era Began promoting the adoption of Chinese culture:Confucianism.Language (kanji characters).Buddhist sects.Chinese art & architecture.Government structure.“Great Kings” era
12Japanese Culture Buddhism in Japan Japanese learn Chinese ideas, customs from contact with KoreaBuddhism spreads widely in Japan, mixes with Shinto practicesCultural Borrowing from ChinaChinese ideas, practices gain wide currency in Japan as resultJapanese adopt Chinese writing, art, and ways of everyday livingJapan does not copy China’s civil-service system
13Prince Shotoku: 573-621 Will rule the Yamato as regent Will eventually take powerDecides that the Chinese are doing right and adopts almost all Chinese policiesTakes the Name of Tenno ( which means heavenly emperor)
14Prince Shotoku: 573-621 Adopted Chinese culture and Confucianism. Buddhist sects allowed to develop.Created a new government structure:17 Article Constitution in 604. First form of Japanese writing
15Heian Period: 794-1156 Characteristics: Growth of large landed estates.Arts & literature of China flourished.Elaborate court life highly refinedETIQUETTE.Personal diariesThe Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon 10cGreat novelThe Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki Shikibu 1000 pgs.Moving away from Chinese models in religion, the arts, and government.
16Heian Period: Cultural Borrowing Chinese writing.Chinese artistic styles.Buddhism in the form of ZEN.BUT, not the Chinese civil service system!
25Founded the Kamakura Shogunate: 1185-1333 Minamoto YoritomoFounded the Kamakura Shogunate:
26The emperor reigned, but did not always rule! Feudal Society
27FeudalismA political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service Japan:ShogunLand - ShoenLoyaltyLand - ShoenDaimyoDaimyoLoyaltySamuraiSamuraiSamuraiFoodProtectionPeasantPeasantPeasantPeasant
28Code of BushidoFidelityPolitenessVirilitySimplicity
29Seppuku: Ritual Suicide It is honorable to die in this way.Kaishaku – his “seconds”
33Underpinnings: Basic Steps in Self Defense A SHORT SLEEVED KIMONO, or “armor robe,” was tied snugly at the waist with a special knot (lower right)A COTTON BREECH CLOUT that extended up over the chest was the basic undergarment of a samurai’s costume
34BILLOWING PANTALOONS,worn over the armor robe, fitted loosely in the legs to allow freedom of movementSTURDY SHINGUARDS of cloth or leather were reinforced with strips of iron to give protection from the frontAN EXQUISITE BROCADE, richly worked with a design of peonies, was one of the extravagant materials used in an armor robe that may have been made for a 14th Century imperial prince
37FeudalismA political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service Europe:KingLand - FiefLoyaltyLand - FiefLordLordLoyaltyKnightKnightKnightFoodProtectionPeasantPeasantPeasantPeasant
38Code of Chivalry Justice Loyalty Defense Courage Faith Humility Nobility
50The Age of the Warring States: (1467 - 1568) Castles built on hills in different provinces.Power shifts from above to below.Europeans arrive in Japan bringing firearms & Christianity.Christianity & foreign trade flourish.
51Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582) Unifies a large part of Japan. Banishes the last Ashikaga shogun.Unifies a large part of Japan.
52Catholic Jesuits in Japan St. Francis Xavier [First Catholic Missionaries in Asia]
53Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598) Becomes suspicious of European territorial ambitions.Orders all European missionaries expelled from Japan. Tries to invade Korea, but fails.
54First Christian Martyrs (1597): Shrine in Nagasaki Today
55Tokugawa Ieyasu ( )Appointed shogun by the Emperor.Four-class system laid down with marriage restricted to members of the same class! Warriors.Farmers.Artisans.Merchants.
56Tokugawa Shogunate Period Japan closed off to all trade [except to the Dutch and Chinese].The Dutch were restricted to a small island in Nagasaki harbor.Japanese Christians persecuted and Christianity is forbidden.The government is centralized with all power in the hands of the shogun.Domestic trade flourishes.Towns, esp. castle towns, increase.Merchant class becomes rich!New art forms haiku poetry, kabuki theater.