2 Directions: As you view the first section of the slide show you must fill out the student comparison sheet in order to answer the questions.1. Comparison One: How do the two regions compare politically?2. Compare Shotoku Taishi and Charlemagne.
6 Prince Shotoku Taishi : 573-621 Adopted Chinese culture and ConfucianismBuddhist sects allowed to develop.He is considered the father of Buddhism in JapanCreated new government structure:17 Article ConstitutionHighly Confucian and focused on morals to be expected of government officials and subjects.Emperor ruled with absolute authority and was considered divine.
12 Charlemagne’s Empire Collapses: Treaty of Verdun 843 Divided theEmpire betweenCharlemagne’ssons. Ending the 3 year long Carolingian War.
13 Europe: England: Magna Carta, 1215 King John I of EnglandForced to sign the “Great Charter”-monarchs were not above the law.- kings had to consult a council of advisors.-kings could not tax arbitrarily.Compare to the Japanese constitution of Prince Shotoku
14 Comparison Two: Religion and Religious Institutions Compare the ways Buddhism spread in China and the ways Christianity spread in Europe.Compare the roles of monks and monasteries in the two religions.
15 Japan Zen Buddhism Japanese variation of Buddhism Came from India through ChinaReinforced Bushido values of mental and self-disciplineBuddhist monasteries became very wealthyBuddhist Missionaries converted many peoples through miracle working.Conversion was never forced.Monasteries were centers of learning, charity, and protection for the poor.East Asian Buddhism (Open Land and Zen Buddhism) promised Salvation for its followers
16 The Medieval Catholic Church Monasticism:- Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience were enforced for monks.-Provided schools for the children of the upper class.- Served as inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war.-Maintained libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts.-monks became missionaries to the barbarians and many conversions came about due to miracles performed-Conversion was both voluntary and forced depending on the region.-Christianity was brought to Europe from the Fertile Crescent-Christianity promised salvation for its followers
17 Social and Political:Compare the Japanese Heian Period with the High Middle Ages leading to the Renaissance in Europe
18 Heian Period: 794-1156 Arts & literature of China flourished Growth of large landed estatesArts & literature of China flourishedElaborate court life [highly refined]Personal diariesThe Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon [10th century] A story of court life.First novelThe Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki Shikibu[1000 pgs.+]Moving away from Chinese models in religion, arts, and government and becoming more uniquely Japanese
19 Heian Period: Cultural Borrowing Chinese writingChinese artistic stylesBuddhism [Zen]BUT, not Chinese civil service system!
20 Japan: Heian PeriodWomen have many rights and freedomsCourt life is highly refinedPoetry and art flourishShoguns take real power over governmentEconomy based on agriculture and land ownership
23 Lady Murasaki ShikibuShe contributed much to the Japanese script known as kana, while men wrote with Chinese characters, kanji.
24 Founded the Kamakura Shogunate: 1185-1333 Minamoto YoritomoFounded the Kamakura Shogunate:Led a warrior coalition of Samurai to victory over Japan. Allowed the emperor to remain in Kyoto and to continue to reign as the symbolic head of state. Japan is now effectively ruled by its warrior class. This system would last for the next seven centuries.
25 Ashikaga Age: 1338-1573 Shoguns fought for power Laws are unclear Less efficient than KamakuraArmies of samurai protected the country
26 Medieval Manor: Medieval Economic System is based on agriculture Europe:Medieval Manor: Medieval Economic System is based on agricultureThe lord of the manor provided governance and justice, direct royal government being quite limited. The king had only few financial resources and seldom exercised legal jurisdiction at a local level.Monasteries and nunneries fell under juristiction of the church.Women could own land – nobelwomen administered husband’s estates when we was away at war.
29 Medieval GuildsGuild HallCreated commercial Monopolies:Guilds Controlled membership apprentice journeyman master craftsman-Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece].-Controlled prices-Stimulated new urban economies as opposed to the manorialism
31 Social Structure: Compare Japanese Feudal Structure to European Feudal Structure
32 FeudalismA political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service.Japan:ShogunLand - ShoenLoyaltyLand - ShoenDaimyoDaimyoLoyaltySamuraiSamuraiSamuraiFoodProtectionPeasantPeasantPeasantPeasant
33 FeudalismA political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service.EuropeKingLand - FiefLoyaltyLand - FiefLordLordLoyaltyKnightKnightKnightFoodProtectionPeasantPeasantPeasantPeasant
34 The emperor reigned, but did not always rule! Feudal Society
43 Europe: Code of Chivalry JusticeLoyaltyCourageFaithHumilityNobility
44 Japan: Code of BushidoFidelityPolitenessVirilitySimplicity
45 Warfare: Contrast the invasions of Japan by the Chinese Mongols with the attacks of the Europeans on the Fertile Crescent
46 Preaching a Crusade against the Muslims Pope Urban II:Preaching a Crusade against the MuslimsChristians were to retake Jerusalem from the Muslims. The reason given was to protect Christian holy places from Muslim destruction after a fire was set in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.Against hereseyWanted trade routesNobels (especially younger sons who didn’t inherit land) were hungry for land wanted to increase their stauusChurch wanted to demonstrate its political authority over western christiandom.
47 Christian Crusades: East and West: Christians gained Control of the FertileCrescent1st crusade captured Jerusalem 1099Muslims got it back in 11871st crusade captured Jerusalem 1099Muslims got it back in 1187
48 Mongol “Invasions” of Japan Kublai Khan (the Mongol ruler of China) sent 4,400 ships and 140,000 men, but kamikaze winds stopped them. China failed to take Japan both times it tried under the Mongol Yuan Dynasty