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Feudal Japan and Europe.

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Presentation on theme: "Feudal Japan and Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Feudal Japan and Europe

2 Directions: As you view the first section of the slide show you must fill out the student comparison sheet in order to answer the questions. 1. Comparison One: How do the two regions compare politically? 2. Compare Shotoku Taishi and Charlemagne.

3 Yamato Period

4 Yamato Period: 300 A.C.E.-710 A.C.E.
Japan Yamato Period: 300 A.C.E.-710 A.C.E. Began promoting adoption of Chinese culture: Confucianism Language (characters) Buddhist sects Chinese art & architecture Government structure

5 Prince Shotoku Taishi

6 Prince Shotoku Taishi : 573-621
Adopted Chinese culture and Confucianism Buddhist sects allowed to develop. He is considered the father of Buddhism in Japan Created new government structure: 17 Article Constitution Highly Confucian and focused on morals to be expected of government officials and subjects. Emperor ruled with absolute authority and was considered divine.

7 Europe in the 6th century

8 Charlemagne: 742 to 814 A.C.

9 Europe Charlemagne: 742 – 814 A.C.E. Holy Roman Empire Created an imperial bureaucracy Standardized weights and measures Imperial Ruler (Absolute Authority) Empire

10 Pope Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800
Pope Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800. This firmly tied the Role of Emperor to The will of God.

11 Charlemagne’s Empire

12 Charlemagne’s Empire Collapses: Treaty of Verdun 843
Divided the Empire between Charlemagne’s sons. Ending the 3 year long Carolingian War.

13 Europe: England: Magna Carta, 1215
King John I of England Forced to sign the “Great Charter” -monarchs were not above the law. - kings had to consult a council of advisors. -kings could not tax arbitrarily. Compare to the Japanese constitution of Prince Shotoku

14 Comparison Two: Religion and Religious Institutions
Compare the ways Buddhism spread in China and the ways Christianity spread in Europe. Compare the roles of monks and monasteries in the two religions.

15 Japan Zen Buddhism Japanese variation of Buddhism
Came from India through China Reinforced Bushido values of mental and self-discipline Buddhist monasteries became very wealthy Buddhist Missionaries converted many peoples through miracle working. Conversion was never forced. Monasteries were centers of learning, charity, and protection for the poor. East Asian Buddhism (Open Land and Zen Buddhism) promised Salvation for its followers

16 The Medieval Catholic Church
Monasticism: - Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience were enforced for monks. -Provided schools for the children of the upper class. - Served as inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war. -Maintained libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts. -monks became missionaries to the barbarians and many conversions came about due to miracles performed -Conversion was both voluntary and forced depending on the region. -Christianity was brought to Europe from the Fertile Crescent -Christianity promised salvation for its followers

17 Social and Political: Compare the Japanese Heian Period with the High Middle Ages leading to the Renaissance in Europe

18 Heian Period: 794-1156 Arts & literature of China flourished
Growth of large landed estates Arts & literature of China flourished Elaborate court life [highly refined] Personal diaries The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon [10th century] A story of court life. First novel The Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki Shikibu [1000 pgs.+] Moving away from Chinese models in religion, arts, and government and becoming more uniquely Japanese

19 Heian Period: Cultural Borrowing
Chinese writing Chinese artistic styles Buddhism [Zen] BUT, not Chinese civil service system!

20 Japan: Heian Period Women have many rights and freedoms Court life is highly refined Poetry and art flourish Shoguns take real power over government Economy based on agriculture and land ownership

21 Heian Court Dress

22 The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon (diary)

23 Lady Murasaki Shikibu She contributed much to the Japanese script known as kana, while men wrote with Chinese characters, kanji.

24 Founded the Kamakura Shogunate: 1185-1333
Minamoto Yoritomo Founded the Kamakura Shogunate: Led a warrior coalition of Samurai to victory over Japan. Allowed the emperor to remain in Kyoto and to continue to reign as the symbolic head of state. Japan is now effectively ruled by its warrior class. This system would last for the next seven centuries.

25 Ashikaga Age: 1338-1573 Shoguns fought for power Laws are unclear
Less efficient than Kamakura Armies of samurai protected the country

26 Medieval Manor: Medieval Economic System is based on agriculture
Europe: Medieval Manor: Medieval Economic System is based on agriculture The lord of the manor provided governance and justice, direct royal government being quite limited. The king had only few financial resources and seldom exercised legal jurisdiction at a local level. Monasteries and nunneries fell under juristiction of the church. Women could own land – nobelwomen administered husband’s estates when we was away at war.

27 Europe: Medieval Trade

28 Europe: Medieval Universities

29 Medieval Guilds Guild Hall Created commercial Monopolies: Guilds Controlled membership apprentice  journeyman  master craftsman -Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. -Controlled prices -Stimulated new urban economies as opposed to the manorialism

30 C A S T L E S

31 Social Structure: Compare Japanese Feudal Structure to European Feudal Structure

32 Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service. Japan: Shogun Land - Shoen Loyalty Land - Shoen Daimyo Daimyo Loyalty Samurai Samurai Samurai Food Protection Peasant Peasant Peasant Peasant

33 Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service. Europe King Land - Fief Loyalty Land - Fief Lord Lord Loyalty Knight Knight Knight Food Protection Peasant Peasant Peasant Peasant

34 The emperor reigned, but did not always rule!
Feudal Society

35 Medieval Warriors vs. Knight’s Armor Samurai Armor

36 Medieval Warriors vs. European knight Samurai Warrior

37 Warwick Castle, England

38 Japan: Main Gate of Hiroshima Castle

39 Caernorfon Castle, Wales

40 Osaka Castle

41 Europe: Parts of Medieval Castle

42 Europe: Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior

43 Europe: Code of Chivalry
Justice Loyalty Courage Faith Humility Nobility

44 Japan: Code of Bushido Fidelity Politeness Virility Simplicity

45 Warfare: Contrast the invasions of Japan by the Chinese Mongols with the attacks of the Europeans on the Fertile Crescent

46 Preaching a Crusade against the Muslims
Pope Urban II: Preaching a Crusade against the Muslims Christians were to retake Jerusalem from the Muslims. The reason given was to protect Christian holy places from Muslim destruction after a fire was set in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. Against heresey Wanted trade routes Nobels (especially younger sons who didn’t inherit land) were hungry for land wanted to increase their stauus Church wanted to demonstrate its political authority over western christiandom.

47 Christian Crusades: East and West: Christians gained
Control of the Fertile Crescent 1st crusade captured Jerusalem 1099 Muslims got it back in 1187 1st crusade captured Jerusalem 1099 Muslims got it back in 1187

48 Mongol “Invasions” of Japan
Kublai Khan (the Mongol ruler of China) sent 4,400 ships and 140,000 men, but kamikaze winds stopped them. China failed to take Japan both times it tried under the Mongol Yuan Dynasty

49 Second Mongol invasion of Japan: 1281 A.C.E.

50 Compare and Contrast Essay Assignment:
Compare and Contrast European and Japanese Societies during the post-classical period.

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