3Minerals… The BIG Idea! Minerals are all around us. A mineral is identified by its properties.Minerals are valuable resources.
4How many different types of minerals are there? Thousands!100 occur in abundance15-30 are found in rockGalena is a mineral used to make paints
5Minerals are everywhere and used daily… Common salt is made from a mineral known as Halite.Pots and pans are made from metal – stainless steel, cast iron, copper or aluminum. All of these come from minerals.
6Did you know… Pencils contain a mineral called graphite. Toothpaste is made with a mineral Fluorite.
7Give me light…Electricity flows through copper wires and into a filament made of tungsten (which comes from a mineral called wolframite).The filament glows and shines through a light bulb of glass (made from quartz)….Mineral teamwork!
8What are the five characteristics of Minerals? Forms in nature (by processes that do not involve living things).Is a solid.Has a definite chemical makeup.Has a 3-D crystal structure.They are inorganic
9Minerals are solids…They are solids, not liquids or gases, such as water and air.Solids have a definite volume and a rigid shape.Oxygen occurs naturally…Is it a mineral?NO…it is a gasAn ice cube is a solid form of water and may occur naturally…Is it a mineral?
10Minerals have a definite chemical make up… Each mineral has a definite chemical composition – or a mix of chemical elements.A mineral’s atoms are arranged in definite patterns repeated over and over again.Most minerals are compounds (more than one element) Salt = NaCl Quartz = Si02EXCEPT for three special minerals:GOLD, SILVER, and COPPER.Gold = AuSilver = Ag Copper = Cu
11Minerals have a geometric or crystal structure… Each mineral has its own type of crystal structure.A solid in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly, repeating three dimensional pattern.Crystal groups are named by their shapes.
12Crystal Patterns There are six major crystal systems. Crystals can form from magma…When magma cools rapidly, the crystals that form will be small.When magma cools slowly, the crystals that form are generally large.
13Minerals form in nature… Minerals must occur naturally. This means they are not made by humans. Substances such as steel and cement would not be considered minerals.For example…Talc is formed deep in the Earth.…Talc is used in cosmetics and baby powders.This is what the mineral talc looks like!
14Minerals are Inorganic Living things can produce minerals within them like human beings produce calcite in their teeth and bones.Seashells are high in calcite.
15How are minerals identified? 1. Color 1. Color2. Streak3. Luster4. Cleavage5. Fracture6. Hardness
16Mineral Properties...Color/Appearance Color and appearance are two obvious clues that can be used to identify minerals. Color is one of the least reliable properties because a mineral may have a variety of colors.
17Mineral properties...Streak When a mineral is rubbed across a piece of tile, a streak or powder is left behind.Streak is the color of a mineral when it is in a powdered form.
18Mineral properties...Luster The way a mineral reflects light is known as luster.Luster can bemetallic (like metal)nonmetallic (dull, pearly, silky, and glassy).
19Mineral properties...Cleavage Minerals that break along smooth, flat surfaces.The bonds of the crystal structure are weaker in the directions in which the mineral breaks.Calcite has cleavage.
20Mineral properties...Fracture Minerals that break with uneven, rough, or jagged.When a mineral fractures, the bonds that join the atoms are equal in strength.Sulfur
21Mineral properties ...Hardness A mineral’s hardness is its resistance to being scratched.Harder minerals have stronger bonds.
22Other Properties… Some minerals… Light forms two separate rays when it passes through calcite, causing you to see a double image.Some minerals…Have a magnetic quality, such as magnetite.React with a weak acid (bubble/fizz).Glow with a black light: fluoresce
23Are minerals and rocks the same? No!Rocks share two characteristics with minerals…They are solidsForm naturallyRocks contain one or more minerals within them.
24Can you remember?Minerals that contain silicon and oxygen are __________.A. magmaB. opalsC. silicatesD. solutionsThe answer is C. Silicates contain silicon and oxygen and usually one or more other elements.
25Can you remember? Which of these is a characteristic of minerals? A. solidB. formed by life processesC. indefinite chemical compositionD. organic substancesThe answer is A. Minerals are solids. Only a solid can be a mineral, but not all solids are minerals.
26Can you remember?Minerals that break easily along smooth, flat surfaces have __________.A. cleavageB. fractureC. lusterD. StreakThe answer is A. Cleavage is determined partly by the arrangement of the mineral’s atoms. Minerals that break with uneven surfaces have fracture.
27Can you remember?Minerals that break into irregular, jagged pieces, have __________.A. cleavageB. fractureC. lusterD. streakThe answer is B. Minerals that break with uneven surfaces have fracture.