Presentation on theme: "Minerals. Minerals are substances that meet five requirements: naturally occurring inorganic solid definite chemical composition ordered internal structure."— Presentation transcript:
Minerals are substances that meet five requirements: naturally occurring inorganic solid definite chemical composition ordered internal structure
Mineral Characteristics (The following questions can help determine if a substance is a mineral or not.) Is it formed naturally? Is it nonliving or inorganic? Is it a solid? Does it have a definite chemical composition? Does it have an ordered internal structure?
"Naturally occurring" means that people did not make it. Steel is not a mineral because it is an alloy produced by people.
"Inorganic" means that the substance is not made by an organism. Wood and pearls are made by organisms and thus are not minerals. "Solid" means that it is not a liquid or a gas at standard temperature and pressure.
"Definite chemical composition" means that all occurrences of that mineral have a chemical composition that varies within a specific limited range. For example: the mineral halite has a chemical composition of NaCl. It is made up of an equal number of atoms of sodium and chlorine.
"Ordered internal structure" means that the atoms in a mineral are arranged in a systematic and repeating pattern. Halite is composed of an equal ratio of sodium and chlorine atoms arranged in a cubic pattern.
Crystals are solid, geometric forms of minerals produced by a repeating pattern of atoms. All minerals are grouped into classes according to the kinds of crystal the form.
Types of Minerals Minerals are divided into two groups based on the elements they are composed of. The two groups are Silicates and Non-Silicates.
Silicates Silicates contain the two most common elements in the Earth’s crust, silicon & oxygen. Silicates make up 90% of the Earth’s crust. Examples are: Feldspar, Mica, & Quartz. Quartz Feldspar Mica
Non-Silicates Non-silicates do not contain both Silicon and Oxygen. Examples are: calcite, galena,pyrite, gypsum, halite
Value of Minerals Ore is the term used describe mineral deposits that are large enough to be mined for profit. Ores vary in value and so do gems. Gems are rare and attractive. After minerals are mined the land has to be reclaimed or put back to it’s original state. The Hope Diamond Ore mine pit
Mining Surface mining recovers minerals at or near the surface. Example: Strip Mining or Open Pit Mining Deep Mining far below Earth’s surface. Deep mining tunnels can be horizontal or vertical, depending on where they are located.