2Definition of Genetics A branch of biology which studies heredity and variation in organisms.Genetics studies the transmission of genes from one generation to another.A blueprint of traits and characteristics is established for the new offspring from the genes transferred from both parents.The genotype is the genetic makeup while the phenotype is the physical makeup.
3Genes and ChromosomesChromosomes (found in pairs) are contained in the nucleus of every cell. Within the chromosomes are smaller units called genes.Genes contain the information that control all of the biochemical processes (life processes) of the cell.
4DNA – Deoxyribonucleic Acid Genetic codes of species consist of distinct DNA.DNA is a complex molecule composed of nucleotides joined together with phosphate sugars.Simply, it is a nucleic acid which contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning all living organisms other than viruses.Nucleotide is building block of nucleic acids. Each nucleotide is composed of sugar, phosphate, and one of the four bases.
5DNA Cont’dThe main role of DNA molecules is long term storage of information.The segments of DNA which carry the genetic information are called genes.Other DNA sequences have structural purposes or are involved with the use of the genetic information.
6Double Helix of DNAConsists of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides with backbones made of sugars and phosphate groups held together by ester bonds.The two strands run opposite directions to each other and are said to be anti-parallel.Attached to each sugar is one of 4 types of bases. It is the sequence of these bases along the backbone of the helix which encodes the information.The 4 bases are divided into two groups: purines, (adenine, A and guanine, G) and pyrimidines, (thymine,T and cytosine, C)
7Helix Cont’dThe DNA is a sequence of the base pairs that represents the code for a specific gene.The sequence of the 4 bases arranged in pairs with a the pairs of the allele provides 256 combinations.Consider the many different traits and the multiple genes and alleles make for exponentially of the complexity of DNA.
8Chromosomes Organized structures of DNA. Contained in the nucleus of the cell.Found in pairs.Numbers of pairs are specie specific.Humans – 46, Cattle – 60, Swine – 38,Sheep – 54, Goats – 60, Horses – 78Dog – 78, Cats – 38,
9GenesGenes contain the information that controls all of the biochemical processes of the cell.The gene codes are for the synthesis of specific proteins of the cell.
10Genome Definition - The complete genetic material of an organism. Genome bases are build to preserve species in as pure a state as possible.
11DNA ReplicationDefinition – the process of making a copy of the DNA molecule.DNA Replication
12Principles of Inheritance Gregor Mendel discovered the principles of inheritance using peas as a subject.Alleles affect the same trait, but each allele causes the production of a different protein and how the trait is expressed.The locus of alleles on a chromosome is said to be homozygous if the alleles are identical. Unlike alleles at the locus on the chromosome are called heterozygous.
13Definition of Inheritance The method by which alleles are passed from one generation to another is called inheritance.Gametes are produced from reproductive cells by the parent.Each gamete contains a single allele for each gene or ½ of the genetic code of the parent.
14Genotypes and Phenotypes When gametes are combined during fertilization, a complete set of genetic code is present. This complete set contains the genetic traits of the new individual is called the genotype of the animal.The physical traits which are expressed from the genetic code present or the physical appearance of the animal is called its phenotype.
15Two Principles of Genetics Principle of segregation – Mendel’s first law states that when gametes are formed, the genes at given locus separate so that each is incorporated into different gametes.Alleles separate so that only one is found in any particular gamete.
16Principles Cont’dPrinciple of independent assortment – states that in the formation of gametes, separation of a pair of genes is independent of the separation of other pairs.When the two principles are applied together, they provide a means for randomization of alleles within the gametes. Thus, our understanding of how variation exists within a population.
17Gametes Male gametes are the sperm cells. Female gametes are the egg cells.They are the germ cells of reproduction.Each normal body tissue cell (somatic cell) has 1 pair of sex chromosomes. The other chromosomes within the somatic cell are called autosomes.
18Haploid and Diploid Numbers All somatic cells contain a diploid (2n) number of chromosomes.The germ cells, sperm and egg, contain a haploid (1n) number.
19Types of Cell DivisionMitosis is the process of somatic cell division.It is replication of cells and responsible for the maintenance of body cells, tissues and organs. In addition, mitosis is responsible for growth of young animals.The cell contains a diploid number of chromosomes and through the replication process two cells emerge with diploid numbers.
20Stages of MitosisProphaseMetaphaseAnaphaseTelophaseYouTube video
21MeiosisMeiosis is responsible for the process of gametogenesis or the formation of gametes.Two processes of gametogenesis are:Spermatogenesis – sperm cellsOogenesis – egg cellsYouTube video
22Gene ExpressionDominant genes – one member of each gene pair is expressed to the exclusion of the other.Recessive genes – one member of each gene pair is only expressed when the dominant allele is absent from the animal genome.
23Genetic Expression Possibilities Homozygous dominant (RR)Homozygous recessive (rr)Heterozygous dominant (Rr)Codominance – both alleles are expressed in the phenotype when present in a heterozygous state. Roan shorthornsIncomplete dominance – no dominance and the heterozygous phenotypic state is an intermediate. Gray horse, palomino horseEpistasis – when gene expression is influenced by the presence of another. Bay horse (brown with black tail), chestnut horse
24Sex Linked or Related Inheritance XX chromosomes are femaleXY chromosomes are maleThe passage of Y with appropriate gene expression provides easy determination of the phenotype of the male offspring.The passage of X masks the genotype of the offspring and expression phenotypically is seen but not necessarily projectable for future offspring.
25Sex Influenced Inheritance Best example: Polled and Horned Dorset sheepHH or homozygous dominant – both male and female have horns.Hh or heterozygous individuals – male has scurs while the female is polled.hh or homozygous recessive individuals – all are polled.
26Population GeneticsIs the study of how gene and genotypic frequencies change within a given population.Gene frequency is defined as the proportion of loci in a population that contain a particular allele.Phenotypic frequency refers to how often we see the particular allele. It is expressed as a % or as a decimal.What we see is usually an indicator of the genetic make up of the individual. Remember that what we see may or may not be what we have present genetically.
27Making Genetic Change to the Population Mutations and genetic drift can be bring about change in the population.Mutations are changes in the chemical composition of gene that alters the DNA of the individual.Genetic drift is a change in the gene frequency owing to chance. An inverse relationship occurs relating to the size of the population.Neither one of the above can be used effectively to make direct change to the gene frequency of a population. Too much is left to chance.
28Genetic Improvement by Migration and Selection Migration is the process of bring new breeding stock into a population. Wholesale change is made in the influx of new genes to the existing population.Migration success in a breeding program is accomplished due to the new genes dramatically changing the gene frequency within a herd or flock.
29SelectionIs the process of allowing certain animals to be parents while other are not bred or are used as slaughter individuals.Two types of selection:NaturalArtificial
30Natural SelectionUsing multiple males in herd or flock results in certain males becoming dominant in passing along their genetic makeup along to offspring as compared to other males in the herd or flock.Physical traits of the male: size, dominant personalities, mobility and reproductive efficiency can lead to changes in the genetic frequency of the offspring.Carload sales of bulls in the Western states are an example.
31Artificial SelectionManagement determines the use of males or females in the breeding herd.The managerial decision is based on the desired outcome from the offspring of particular matings, i.e. breeding for carcass vs breeding for reproductive efficiency by using selected males and females.
32Quantity vs Quality Traits Qualitative traits are defined as those phenotypes that are classified into groups rather than numerically measured. Examples given: color of hair coat, horns, white faces, black hoovesQuantitative traits are numerically measured and are controlled by many genes which individually have small influence. Examples are: ADG, FE, pigs weaned/litter, #of milkRemember – environment will affect the quantitative trait expression. Some environment may aid while other may hinder the positive effect of selecting quantitative traits for herd improvement.
33HeritabilityDefinition – it is a measure of the proportion of phenotypic variation that can be passed on to offspring.It is used as an indicator of the amount of genetic progress that can be achieved by choosing superior sires and dams.It is the proportion of the difference between individuals that is due to additive gene effects.Additive gene action or effect is when the total phenotypic effect is the sum of the individual effects of the alleles.
34Improvement from Heritability Understanding Selection differential is the phenotypic advantage of the parents chosen to provide offspring. The difference in the mean of the parents compared to the mean of the population.Example from text: Herd average is 7 pigs/litter born. Producer chooses sires and dams who average 11 pig/litter. Difference is 4 pigs. Litter size is 10% heritable thus 4(10%) = .4 pigs. We can expect litters from gilts produced from the crossing to produce an average of 7.4 pigs/litter born.
35Percents of Heritability Reproductive traits are low in heritability. <20%Growth related traits are moderate in heritability %Carcass traits are considered high in heritability. >40%
36Systems of MatingInbreedingLinebreedingOutbreedingCrossbreeding
37InbreedingThe mating of closely related individuals, i.e. father to daughter, son to daughter.Inbreeding decreases the variation in the genes existing in a herd, thus increasing the homozygosity of desired traits as well as some undesired traits.Undesired performance is called inbreeding depression.
38LinebreedingA form of inbreeding where the concentration of genes centers around a common ancestor, i.e. grandson to granddaughter.Also used to concentrate genes for phenotypic expression.Common among companion animals, dogs in particular.
39Outbreeding or out crossing Heterosis is defined as the improvement in performance by individual offspring from the crossing over the performance of the parent population.Increased heterozygosity or hybrid vigor results.Do not confuse heterosis with in purebreds with the heterosis resulting from crossbreeding.
40Crossbreeding The mating of individuals from two different breeds. Maximization of heterosis occurs with the two breed cross.Breed rotations are common methods.