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Genetics the study of hereditythe way in which traits of parents are passed on to offspring
Father of Genetics Gregor Mendel Austrian monkdid experiments with peas and proved that certain characteristics……..
………. Such as color and height, are passed from parent to offspring
Differences all differences in organisms are not caused by geneticssome are caused by the environment the conditions under which the animals are raised
Parts of the cell cell membrane - contains the cytoplasm and the nucleus
Cytoplasm protects and cushions the nucleus
Nucleus contains the genetic material
Chromosomes carry the genesexist in pairs in all cells except sperm and egg cells
Genes single determiner of a hereditary trait
Cell Division two types Mitosis Meiosis
Mitosis cell division for growth this division never endschromosome pairs are duplicated exactly alike
Mitosis each new cell is exactly like the old ones asexual divisionchromosomes are in pairs
Mitosis steps of mitosis Prophase (Interphase) Metaphase Anaphase
Steps Telophase Cytokinesis ** PMATC
Meiosis cell division of reproductive cells (sperm and egg)each new cell is not exactly like the old one
Meiosis in each new cell chromosomes are not in pairseach new cell contains half of the original number of chromosomes
Meiosis allows for random assortment of parental genes
Gamete mature egg or sperm celleach gamete has half the original number of chromosomes
Dominant gene in a pair, hides the effect of another gene
Recessive gene the gene which is hidden by a dominant gene
Examples of dominant genes tongue rolling free ear lobes polled cattle
Examples of recessive genes color red in Holsteins dwarfism
Symbols dominant genes capital letters A
Symbols recessive genes lower case letters a
Homozygous gene pairs one which carries two genes for a traitboth represented by capital or lower case letters
Homozygous polled - PP horned - pp
Heterozygous gene pairsone which carries one dominant and one recessive gene
Genotype genetic makeup of an animal or a given trait expressed by symbols Ex: PP, AA, Pp, Aa, aa
Phenotype physical appearance expressed in words Ex: polled, horned
Mitosis T t Meiosis T t Mitosis t t
Steps of Meiosis Prophase I ( Interphase) Metaphase I Anaphase ITelophase I
Steps of Meiosis Prophase II (Interphase) Metaphase II Anaphase IITelophase II Cytokinesis
If two heterozygous animals are matedthe number of traits being selected is six the total number of offspring is over 16,000,000
Incomplete Dominance when one gene does not hide the effect of the other in a gene pair result is a mixture of the two traits
Incomplete Dominance Roan coloring in cattle RR X WW = RWRed X White = Roan Roan - mixture of red and white hairs
Sex determination male sex chromosomesmale mammals have two different sex chromosomes XY females are XX
Sex determination poultrythe female determines the sex of the offspring female is ZW male is ZZ
Sex Linked Traits genes which are carried only on the sex chromosomesex: red green color blindness 2:25 males 1:150 females
Sex Linked Traits hemophilia bleeders’ diseasemore common in males than in females
Sex Linked Traits barred feather pattern vs black in chickens
Mutation when a new trait is shown that did not exist in either parent
Mutation the new breed of polled Herefordswhich resulted from the crossing of two horned animals
Causes of Mutations radiation (nuclear accident or x-ray) chemicals
Systems of breeding purebreeding inbreeding outcrossing grading upcrossbreeding
Purebreeding purebred is defined as a member of a breedthe animals of which possess a common ancestry distinctive characteristics
Purebreeding is registered or eligible for registry
Outcrossing mating of animals of different families within the same breed relatively safe system of breeding
Outcrossing unlikely that two unrelated animals would carry the same undesirable genes and pass them on
Grading up mating of purebred sires to grade femalesrelatively inexpensive and is dependent upon the quality of the sire
Inbreeding mating of related animalsclosebreeding - a form of inbreeding most intensive form animals are very closely related
Closebreeding sire to daughter son to dam brother to sister
Closebreeding was used on foundations but is not used much todayused in the development of the Quarter Horse breed
Closebreeding animals are more uniformmore chance for undesirable recessive gene expression
Linebreeding refers to the mating of animals which are more distantly related cousins, grandparents, half sibling
Linebreeding used favorably today because there is less chance of expression on undesirable recessive traits
Linebreeding less chance of genetically superior stockconsidered middle of the road
Crossbreeding mating of animals from different breedsoften causes hybrid vigor
Hybrid Vigor causes crossbreds to outproduce the average of their parents some breeds cause hybrid vigor better than others
Hybrid Vigor breeding a British breed, Angus, to an Indian Breed< Brahman compared to an Angus X Shorthorn cross
Hybrid Vigor Angus X Brahman would have more hybrid vigor
Selection based upon type pedigree showring winningsproduction records
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Father __________ Austrian monk who worked with ___________in monastery garden. Developed first theories on _________________.
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