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1.Review- What is a niche Use Analogies- How is a niche like a profession. In ecological terms, describe your niche. 2.Review- What is symbiosis. What.

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Presentation on theme: "1.Review- What is a niche Use Analogies- How is a niche like a profession. In ecological terms, describe your niche. 2.Review- What is symbiosis. What."— Presentation transcript:

1 1.Review- What is a niche Use Analogies- How is a niche like a profession. In ecological terms, describe your niche. 2.Review- What is symbiosis. What are the major type of symbiosis. Explain- Bacteria living in a cow’s stomach help the cow break down the cellulose in grass, gaining nutrients in the process. Is this an example of commensalism or mutualism- explain. Apply Concepts- What is the difference between a predator and a parasite- explain 3.Review- What is a keystone species. Infer- How might a dramatic decrease in vegetation lead to a decrease in a predator species.

2 CH 4 ECOSYSTEMS AND COMMUNITIES 4.2 Niches and Community Interactions

3  Community  Interacting populations at the same time and place  Ecosystem  The community and its environment (abiotic factors).

4  Niche  Role in community, it’s job or what it does  Includes biotic and abiotic factors  Habitat  Physical place where it lives  No two organisms share exactly the same niche in the same habitat  Niche and Habitat of  Your pet dog Spot  Oak tree  You.

5 Tolerance  Ability to survive and reproduce under a range of environmental circumstances  Farther than the optimal the greater the stress  More energy to maintain homeostasis and less energy left for growth and reproduction.

6 Competition  Occurs when organisms attempt to use the same limited ecological resource in the same place at the same time  Intraspecific Competition  Between members of the same species  Interspecific Competition  Between members of different species.

7 The Competitive Exclusion Principle  No two species can occupy exactly the same niche in exactly the same habitat at exactly the same time  One species will be better at competing for limited resources and will eventually exclude the other species.

8 The Competitive Exclusion Principle  Dashed Lines- Cultures grown separately  Solid Lines- Cultures grown together.

9 Dividing Resources  Species usually divide resources rather than compete over them  Using slightly different resources results in different niches.

10 Predator-Prey Relationships  Predation  One organism kills and eats the other one  Predators can affect the size of prey populations in a community and determine the places prey can live and feed.

11 Herbivore-Plant Relationships  Herbivory  Interaction where a herbivore feeds on producers  Can affect both the size and distribution of plant populations and determine where certain plants can survive and grow.

12 Keystone Species  Species that plays major role in the structure of the entire community  Beaver.

13 Relationships Review  Symbiosis  Organisms of different species that live in direct physical contact  Predator-prey  Relationship where one organism kills and eats the other one  Win/lose (+,-)  Parasitism  Relationship where one organism lives off another one without trying to kill it  Win/lose (+,-).

14 Relationships Review  Competition  Relationship where both organism want the same resource- food, habitat  Lose/lose (-,-)  Mutualism  Relationship where both organisms benefit  Win/win (+,+)  Commensalisms  Relationship where one organism benefits and the other is unaffected  Win/nothing (+,0)  More types  Lose/win (-,+).

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