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DAIRY ~ (Cheese) What do I need to know about the nutritional value, classifications & cookery of cheese? UNIT 4B.

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Presentation on theme: "DAIRY ~ (Cheese) What do I need to know about the nutritional value, classifications & cookery of cheese? UNIT 4B."— Presentation transcript:

1 DAIRY ~ (Cheese) What do I need to know about the nutritional value, classifications & cookery of cheese? UNIT 4B

2 DAIRY ~ (Cheese) Dairy foods are a processed food group (milk & cheese) that is as nourishing and versatile. UNIT 4B

3 Test Date: TBA What to know / what to study:  Notes on equivalent measures (you’ll see this again)  Milk & Cheese study guides  Classifications of cheese  Nutritional value of milk/cheese  Cookery methods of milk/cheese  Forms of milk  Fondue notes  Milk & cheese vocab terms  Notes specific to cooking pudding  The discovery of cheese

4 VOCABULARY Cheese Curd Whey Coloring Starter Rennet Cured Processed Cheese UNIT 4B Solid portion of coagulated milk Liquid part of coagulated milk Aged cheese that lasts relatively longer than uncured cheese. Firm/Hard cheese An enzyme usually used in cheese production A cultured bacteria used in cheese making Solid food made from milk Dyes used to keep cheese uniform in appearance despite factors that naturally cause cheese to vary in color. Made from natural cheese with added moisture to improve texture & quality

5 DAIRY ~ (Cheese) NOTES Cheese making is an ancient method of preserving milk. Legend: An Arab stored milk in a container made from a calf’s stomach. When he stopped to drink, he noticed only a small amount of watery substance ran from the bag. Version 1: - he ripped the bag open and tasted the solidified mass. It had a mild, sweet flavor. He ate it immediately. Version 2: - He hung the bag in a convenient place and continued on his journey. Weeks later on his return trip, he tasted the firm curd. Milk formed a curd because the lactic-acid-producing bacteria increased the acidity and the enzyme rennin in the calf’s stomach helped in its coagulation. Rennin coagulated milk at 99 degrees. Cheese making: Warm milk slightly Add starter (lactic-acid producing bacteria) Add rennin Casein coagulates, curd forms Curd cut to separate from whey Uncured cheese Stored in refrigerator Does not keep well Cottage cheese Cream cheese Cured cheese Prepared from pasteurized milk Yellow color is added Heated to a higher temperature than uncured cheese Ripened at correct humidity and temperature for the type of cheese being made

6 Cheese Classifications With so many cheeses available today, there are several categories by which they can be referenced. Milk type, country of origin, region, handling, aging, and texture are some of the various classification strategies that have been used. Although most experts agree that none of these classifications are completely adequate, so far no one has been able to come up with one that really covers all the variables. Even when two experts agree on which method to use, they do not necessarily agree on which cheeses fall into which categories.

7 Cheese Classifications g/articles/980-how-to-classify- cheese?page=2

8 DAIRY ~ (Cheese) NOTES Low temperatures, long ripening = superior cheese In the United States, cheddar is the most popular cured cheese. Cheddar is mild at first, then it ripens to a stronger flavor. Cheddar cheese is named from a village in England where it was first made. Colby cheese resembles cheddar but is softer – not cured as long. Edam cheese is also similar to cheddar, but is reduced to 2.5% fat. You will recognize this cheese easily as it is covered with red paraffin. Cheese is graded on: Flavor Body texture Swiss cheese has holes in it due to the gas given off by bacteria in the cheese. Processed cheeses are natural cheeses that are ground, mixed, heated, and emulsified. Cheese grades are: AA, A, B, C, and D Due to the high protein and fat in cheese, it can be used in place of meat. Cheese is relative low in cost… with exceptions! Because cheese is high protein food, it must be cooked at low temperature.

9 SEMI SOFT: (too soft to easily grate, too firm to scoop in spoon) American, feta, bleu, mozzarella, montery jack, muenster VERY HARD: (extremely hard, crumbles apart when you try to grate it) Sharp Parmesan, romano, asiago HARD: (cheese that can be grated) Gruyere, swiss, cheddar, provolone PROCESSED: Velveeta, cheese whiz SOFT: (easy to scoop in spoon, easy to spread) Cream cheese, cottage cheese, ricotta cheese, neufchatel 2.The most popular cheese in the U.S. is __________. 3.________ cheese has the large holes in it which are actually gas bubbles produced by bacteria. 4._______ cheese is made by piercing the cheese with small needle holes that allow the air to go through and encourage the growth of mold. 5.Most soft cheese should be served at what temperature? 6.____________ cheese is a blend of natural cheeses with added moisture to produce a cheese uniform in texture, quality, and excellent cooking properties. 7.Cheese is packages and priced by the ________. 8.When cooking with cheese, it is important to use _____heat. 9.The ________in cheese is toughened when it is overcooked. 10. A ________is used to help start the milk on its way to developing flavor characteristics. cheddar Swiss Blue cold Processed pound low protein starter

10 DAIRY ~ (Cheese) STUDY GUIDE 1. What is the oldest of all food manufactured by man? By whom was it discovered? 2. What nutrients are abundantly found in cheese? 3. In America and throughout most of the world, cheese is made largely from ______ milk. 4. ½ c. cottage cheese = _____ c. milk 1” cube of cheddar cheese = ___ c. milk 5. What should be done with cheese that is beginning to mold? 6. How should cheese be wrapped and stored? 7. Cheese that had been _______ is best used in cooking as the texture is somewhat changed. 8. How should you go about defrosting cheese? 9. Cured cheese is best served at ______ temperature. A. D. B. E. C. F. cheese Discovered on accident by a wandering tribesman who stored milk in calf’s stomach protein vitamin A fat vitamin B phosphorus calcium 1 1 airtight wrapper in refrigerator Trim away mold – does not harm remaining cheese frozen Cow’s room thaw slowly in the refrigerator

11 10. Cheeses such as cream cheese and cottage cheese are best when they are served at _______ temperature. 11. Cheese is a highly concentrated protein food which can often be substituted for a _____ serving. 12. T or F Aerosol cans and squeeze packs of cheese should be stored in the refrigerator. 13.Cheese is a member of the ____ group. Teenagers should have _____ servings per day. Cheese Terms to Know: 14.Cheese18. Starter 15.Curd19. Cured 16. Whey20. Rennet 17.Coloring DAIRY ~ (Cheese) STUDY GUIDE chilled meat dairy 2 - 3

12 Pasteurized Process Cheeses Does the aerosol can require refrigeration after it is opened???? Process cheese is good up to 3-4 weeks in refrigerator, 6-8 months in freezer Refrigerate slices of (opened) process cheese and cheese food. Refrigerate loaves and jars after opened. Most squeeze packages and aerosol cans don't need refrigeration, but check label.

13 STUDY GUIDE FOR FONDUE COOKING 1.The word fondue is derived from the French word _______ which means “to melt.” 2.Fondue is a tasty combination of _________ & __________. 3.The idea for fondue originated in what country? 4.What are two basic fondues besides cheese? A.B. 5.Three types of fondue pots are: A.B.C. 6.What should you do if a flare-up develops when using the fondue pot? 7.When planning to serve fondue, supply one pot for every ______ people so a crowded situation doesn’t occur. 8.List the two principles of cheese cookery. A.B. 9.High heat or overcooking toughens the __________. 10._____ oz. = 1 c. cheese shredded. fondre oils cheesebread dessert electric candlesterno handful of baking soda at base of flame / put lid over flame 4 - 6 low heatavoid overcooking protein 4 Switzerland

14 Bell Ringer In detailed complete sentences, describe the discovery of cheese. The more thorough you are, the more prepared you will be for Monday’s test. (Your sentences should explain the who, the what, the how!!!)

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