Breaking these rules can result in a skin forming on the surface of the milk, scorching, and/or curdling.
Scorch Not desirable Milk solids fall to bottom and burn Avoid by stirring and using low to moderate heat
Scald Heating milk to just below the simmer point Used in yeast bread baking to kill competing bacteria/enzymes Too obtain cooked flavor
As the milk heats and water evaporates, the milk protein clumps together and forms a skin or film on the surface of the milk. If you remove this, you remove many nutrients. To Avoid a Skin on Cooked Milk: Cover the pan during cooking Use low heat Stir while cooking Cover with plastic wrap while cooling Whisk back in if forms
Curdle Not always a bad thing since it is the first step in making cheese The proteins (casein) clump together Occurs when pH of milk becomes acidic due to bacteria growth (spoilage) or addition of acid (vinegar or tomatoes) High heat and addition of salt can also cause To avoid: add acidic foods slowly
Buttermilk Used in baked goods as part of the leavening agent (acid + baking soda) A substitution is milk mixed with vinegar (1 cup to 1 T. ratio)
Butter Softened – allow to sit at room temperature Melted – apply heat to turn to liquid Burns very easily. If butter burns when heating, throw out and start again or it will ruin the taste of the product. Browned butter can be made by heating butter in pan until it turns a light brown color. Remove from heat immediately.
To make clarified butter, melt the butter on low heat or in a microwave. Allow the butter to sit, and the cloudy light-colored milk solids will settle to the bottom. This leaves a “clear”, very yellow-colored butter as the top layer. This layer is the drawn butter. The drawn butter can be served in a warmer or a side dish. It serves as a flavorful dipping sauce for foods such as seafood or artichokes.
Butter Measurements: ¼ cup = ½ stick = 1/8 pound = 4 Tablespoons ½ cup = 1 stick = ¼ pound = 8 Tablespoons 1 cup = 2 sticks = ½ pound = 16 Tablespoons 2 cups = 4 sticks = 1 pound = 32 Tablespoons
Cooking with Cheese Store in the refrigerator Keep tightly wrapped (dry out and absorb flavors) Hard varieties served at room temperature for best flavor Shredded, grated or shaved for easier melting or to distribute in recipes
Shred Cheese Long, thin pieces Hard and semi- hard cheeses Cheddar, mozzarella, Swiss, Gouda
Grated Cheese Small pieces Very hard cheese Parmesan, Romano
Breaking these rules can cause cheese to become tough (rubbery), stringy, and greasy.. When cleaning up, don’t use hot water or you will cook the cheese onto the pan or utensil. 3. When cleaning up, don’t use hot water or you will cook the cheese onto the pan or utensil.
Stop! Did you say you cooked your pizza in a very hot oven? Doesn’t that break the cooking rules? Won’t the cheese get rubbery, stringy and greasy? Oh yeah… I like it like that! In some foods, the undesirable qualities caused by cooking cheese incorrectly actually become desirable qualities. Pizza is the perfect example! The stringy, rubbery, greasy mozzarella cheese is exactly what you want in a good pizza!
Cheese Crisps Breaks the rules of cheese cookery with yummy results.
Yogurt Over-stirring yogurt with make it thinner If whey separates on the top, drain it off for a thicker yogurt or gently stir it back in. Drain yogurt to make yogurt cheese Yogurt can be substituted for sour cream or mayonnaise