Simple, Compound, Complex Clauses Connectives 41. Subordinating, Coordinating connectives Clauses and Phrases Past, Present and Future Commands and Statements 51. Imagery Alliteration
Simile Metaphors Onomatopoeias Personification Active and Passive Noun Phrases Adverbial Phrase Adjective Phrase Impersonal and Personal 72. Writing Concisely
Introduction to SPAG SPAG is all about Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar. It is a very important thing in life because we are writing things every day.
Punctuation A., ! ? “ ” ; : ‘ - ( )
Can you match the punctuation with the correct meaning.., ? ! “ ” Used to mark a small pause Used after humour or onomatopoeias Used to mark the end of a sentence Used to mark the beginning and end of dialogue. Used to mark the end of a question
; : ‘ - ( ) Used to add in extra info or for compound words Used in a list that has longer listed items and to add more info Used to mark contractions Used to mark extra information Used to mark the beginning of a list
Omission and Possession! These are the two types of apostrophe. The apostrophe of omission is to show missing letters like the word here’s. The apostrophe of possession shows that something belongs to someone like the boy’s dog.
Can you add in the apostrophes and tick whether they are omission or possession! Rebeccas bicycle was very shiny. Omission Possession Oliver didnt want to go to the dentist. Omission Possession Shell have to catch the spider! Omission Possession
Can you put the correct Punctuation in the sentences! where is the circus Today we are going to london. Abbie who is 11 is a very pretty girl. Suddenly there was a huge BANG
“Are you coming to my birthday party asked Tammy For the camping trip youll need a sleeping bag, a torch, pyjamas and a teddy. Dont ever enter the cellar it is so spooky. Robs car is super sporty it can reach a top speed of 300mph
“no” shouted Lucy “youll regret this” “Wheres my beautiful dog Jessica, Youd better find it!” The boy who is amazing at football scored a wonderful goal. In my lunchbox, I would like: an apple, crisps, salad sandwiches and loads of chocolate!
the following activities will be on offer a giant swing which is a thrilling high ride a maze where tons of people have gone missing a zip wire that zooms by and a never-ending underground tunnel
Can you spot all the punctuation errors in the text? george was a very naughty cat. One sunny friday morning, George crept down the stairs and drank all the milk he could find semi skimmed, goats milk and even Harrys milkshake. Later on Harry Georges owner came down for a glass of milkshake. Oh No. There was none in the fridge. Wheres all my delicious milkshake gone he asked.
harry glared down at George unfortunately spotting a drip of banana milkshake running down his whisker. “George, come here now” he screamed. george couldn’t wait any longer he shot out the cat flap, ran down the road and jumped onto the back of a van. Suddenly George noticed what he had done, he had leaped on the back of a milk van George lay down and gazed at all the lovely milk he was about to enjoy
Spelling Tick whether the spelling is incorrect or correct. SurpriseAddisionComunicationAdvertisement
Nouns There are 5 types of noun: Collective, abstract, common, pronoun and proper. A collective noun is a group word like army, herd and swarm. An abstract noun is something you can’t touch like happiness. A common noun is normal like a table, pencil and door. A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun like she, he or it. A proper noun ALWAYS begins with a capital letter. It is normally a place or name like London, Jack and Lisa.
Can you identify the types of noun that are in red? Last year we went on holiday to Greece. When I failed my exam, I fell to the floor in disappointment. Connor has got a really cool calculator! Yesterday we saw a gaggle of geese wander in the playground. All you need to belong is love. He is like a professional at football. We cant get in the house unless you find the key.
Pull the curtains and let the show begin! On the farm we saw a flock of sheep. In our class, William is the cleverest at maths. It had sharp teeth and fierce eyes. Sadness exploded in my heart, I hadn't passed my exams. Apparently soon will be the start of a new war. Maisie is incredible at athletics, she shoots down the track like a bullet.
Adjectives Adjectives are words that describe nouns like amazing, small and pink.
Can you think of your own adjectives for the sentences below? The food was Kieron has an watch. The cottage down the road is The sea was warmed by the sun. The cellar is full of cobwebs and floorboards. Amy thought hedgehogs were
Verbs and Adverbs A verb is known as a doing word like run, dance and jump. All verbs can have the word to in front of them. An adverb describes a verb like I ran quickly to the shops. Ran is the verb and quickly is the adverb.
Can you think of your own verbs for the following sentences? In choir we are a funny song. I love to pictures of my house. In the triple jump you have to hop, and jump. and jump. I had to out a story on the computer. Callum the yummy ice- cream.
Can you think of your own adverbs for the following sentences? The snail slithered up the leaf. Charlie placed the last card on the top. Ella danced across the stage. George spoke the opening lines of the play. Jamie walked through the spooky forest.
Articles Articles are a, an, the. They are very simple so you just need to learn them.
Prepositions Prepositions are words that show location like: OnUnderBesideAtIn They are very simple so you just need to learn them.
Simple, Compound, Complex These are the 3 types of sentences. Simple has no connective, it has 1 subject and 1 verb. A compound sentence includes a connective which joins 2 simple sentences together. Complex sentences include commas to mark clauses. Simple: The birds sang. Compound: The birds sang and flew around the trees. Complex: The birds, who loved music, sang and flew around the trees.
Can you identify each group for the sentences? Jason loves the sun but not the rain. Ananya likes horse-riding. The council shut the road so they could fill in the potholes. Adam, who loves playing the lottery, bought tons of tickets. Millie is a very friendly girl.
If you want to see Little Mix at the 02, an arena in London, you will have to by tickets quickly. Ruth loves football and street dance. Mrs Hyde is extremely good at maths so she is always up for solving problems. Put your pencil down. Florence, our pet cat, loves to play with wool.
Clauses There are 2 main types of clause. A main clause and a subordinate clause. A main clause makes sense on its own however a subordinate clause doesn’t. Below the main clause is in red and the subordinate is in blue. After we had our lunch, we went out to play.
Can you identify the two clauses in the sentences. Behind the tree, there is an ants nest. After six tonight, there will be a firework display at the pier. If you want to succeed, you have to believe I yourself. Over the style, you will find the treasure.
On the shelf, there are around one million books. Behind the school, there are two gigantic sports fields. There is an epic roller coaster, opposite the terror tower. Inside the cupboard, you will find the most amazing discoveries. Below the sea, it is said that there are over ten million fossil shells.
Connectives These are words that join clauses like: It rained today so there were lots of puddles outside. They might also be called conjunctions. Here are some useful connectives:
Sobutandhoweveralthoughtherefore consequently even though because due to whereasdespite
Can you fill in the gaps with an appropriate connective? I love hamsters guinea pigs. The sun is helpful it provides us with light. We went outside the weather. Charles is strong he is amazing at rugby.
Dad bought us a goal we could play football. The Christmas tree looked fabulous of all the decorations. You will need to bring goggles, a swimsuit a towel. The council closed the road they could fill in the potholes. The sports centre closed down they weren't earning enough money. they weren't earning enough money.
Subordinating and Coordinating connectives Subordinating connectives are used when there is a subordinate clause. Like… Because it was raining, we had to stay indoors. Coordinating connectives join two parts of equal importance. Like... Frankie and Samuel I remember by subordinating is subordinate clause
Phrases and Clauses The difference between a clause and a phrase is a clause contains a subject and a verb whereas a phrase does NOT contain a verb. Phrase: Behind the chair Clause: The baby laughed
Can you identify whether the following are clauses or phrases? The large present The tall girl The dog barked The exquisite cottage The door creaked On the window sill The bunny hopped The prestigious trophy C P
The sun vanished The mouse clicked Behind the bowl The bulb flashed Beside the basket The assertive girl The volcanoes erupted The sweet cottage The tasty pie The sea roared C P
Past, present and future. Each verb has a different way of saying the past, present and future. For example Run Past: Ran Present: Running Future: Run
Can you pick the right tense for the missing verbs. Tomorrow I will swim to the island. Yesterday I swam to the island Yesterday I drove to the beach. Now I am to the beach Now I am singing a song Tomorrow I will a song
Yesterday I drew a picture. Today I will a picture. Yesterday I brushed my horse. Now I am my horse. Tomorrow we will go to the shops Yesterday we to the shops. Tommorow I will cut my hair. Yesterday I my hair
Commands and Statements Commands are bossy and begin with a bossy verb like… Go and get your pencil. Statements are normal sentences like… I love pets
Can you identify whether the following sentences are commands or statements. Ducks have webbed feet. C S Put down that thing C S Pull the blinds C S Frogs are funny creatures. C S
Bees make honey. C S Bake me a cake. C S Arrest him. C S I love reading. C S Click on the red button. C S
Imagery To help us describe things we use imagery. AlliterationSimilesMetaphorsOnomatopoeiasPersonification
Alliteration Alliteration is where you repeat the same starting letter. Like… Slippery, slimy snake.
Can you think of 2 other adjectives for each noun to create alliteration. ____________________ desert ____________________ cat ____________________ grass ____________________ rat ____________________ beach ____________________ elephant ____________________ snail ____________________ tree
Simile A simile is when you describe something like or as something. Like… The firework was like a million glowing diamonds. The building was as high as the clouds
Can you think of the rest of the simile. The sea was as blue as ________ Eli was as fast as _____________ Miss Hicks was as funny as a _________ The scene was perfect like a __________ The jumper was as red as ______ The cat was as fluffy as a _______
Metaphors Metaphors are similar to similes however metaphors describe something as something. Like… The sea was a raging monster
Can you think of the rest of the metaphor The wind was a ___________________________ The baby was a ___________________________ His brain was a ___________________________ The clouds were ___________________________
Onomatopoeias Onomatopoeias are words that sound like what they say. They are very effective. Like…BangMeow
Can you think of your own onomatopoeias that fit the sentences. The symbols made a loud_______ Bees _________ The sinister snake _________ When I jumped in the water there was a loud _______ The rain_________ on the rooftops. The calm sea ________ softly.
Personification Personification is where you give non human beings a human action. Like… The stars danced merrily in the moonlit sky. The sun drew open my curtains and showed me its gleaming rays.. We know this is personification because in real life stars cannot dance and the sun cannot open your curtains!
Can you think of personification for these non human beings. The sea ____________________ The clouds__________________ The snow___________________ The storm___________________ The thunder_________________ The river____________________ The clock hands______________ The engine__________________ The branches________________
Active and Passive The majority of sentences are active, where the subject is doing the thing. Like… Anne washed the dishes. The passive form of this sentence would therefore be… The dishes were washed by Anne.
Can you identify whether the following sentences are Active or Passive. The food was eaten by Yasmin. A P The gold was stolen by the burglar. A P Ethan completed his homework. A P The bill was paid by Mrs Rumbold. A P Ted completed the puzzle. A P
Noun phrases Easy! In fact, in your writing you probably use them quite a lot. So, what are they? Well instead of writing The fence We can write The ramshackle fence behind the pond All they do is tell us a bit more about the noun.
Can you expand the noun into a noun phrase? The cellar _______________________________ The garden _______________________________ The painting _______________________________ The teacher _______________________________ The tractor _______________________________
Adverbial Phrase An adverbial phrase is a short bit of detail which adds extra info like She will be arriving in a short time. Fred is waiting near the wall.
Can you add an adverbial phrase on each sentence There will be a storm ____________________________ You will find the treasure ____________________________ A dog attacked your cat ____________________________ Put the slow down hump ____________________________
Adjective Phrase Adjective phrases include an adjective and a word that describes the adjective. Like: Incredibly pretty
Can you think of your own adjective phrases for the following sentences? Pinocchio's nose grew ___________________________ Just before lunch I get ___________________________ The chilli sauce was ___________________________ The cottage on the hill was ___________________________
Impersonal and Personal Depending on the style of writing, you will need to write in either personal or impersonal. Personal writing is where you mention I, you, their, me (basically anything personal) and therefore impersonal writing is where you do not use personal words.
Can you identify all the personal words in this text. I believe that closing down the local sports centre will not be a terrific idea. Do you visit this centre regularly? Well I do. Me and my friend go swimming every Saturday. Wouldn’t it be a shame if it shut down? Your fitness is incredibly important too. Therefore please join my campaign to save the sports Centre! Thank you for your help.
Writing Concisely As we head up to the level 6 curriculum, Writing concisely and avoiding unwanted words becomes incredibly important. To write concisely, you have to make sure your work includes no unwanted repetition or words.
I hope that you found my SPAG powerpoint useful and fun. If you did why not try looking at my other powerpoint on Maths Created by Liberty!