2 ArticlesThe three articles are “a”, “an” and “the”.
3 NounsNouns are naming words. They refer to a name, place, brand or thing.The most popular noun is a common noun – these are a name of a thinghave no capital letter: chair, table, tree.The other most popular noun is a proper noun – these are names ofPeople, Places and Brands and require a capital letter: Mrs Woodward,London, Nike.There are also abstract nouns and collective nouns. An abstract nounIs a word for ideas and concepts: jealousy, boredom, happiness, honesty.A collective noun is a collection of things: pride, swarm, flock. Both these nouns donot need a capital letter – unless they start at the beginning of a sentence.A concrete noun is a noun that refers to people and things that existPhysically and can be seen, touched, smelled, heard and tasted.
4 PronounsPronouns are those handy words which save us from repeating the noun. TheyReplace the noun: He, me, she, it, he, her, him, his, you, they, your, their, our,We, them, I, us. There is no need to use a capital letter for a pronoun – unlessIt starts at the beginning of a sentence.Possessive pronouns tell you who or what owns a noun.Relative pronouns introduce more information about the noun.
5 VerbsVerbs are doing words. All main verbs have two simple tenses, the presenttense and the past tense: I walk – present; I walked – past;Action verbs – running, bought, putting on, has seen.Verbs of state (states of mind)- feel, hate, wishes,Agreed, mean, belonged, is being, expecting, were tasting.Active and Passive verbs - an active verb is something you are physically doingAn action – a passive verb is something you have already done (you are notdoing it at the moment): The eggs were thrown – passive; The old castle ishaunted by ghosts.Auxiliary Verbs – are verbs which are used together with other verbs:We are going; Lucy has grown; Can you play? The most common auxiliary verbsAre: be, have and do.Modal Verbs – are: can and will.
6 AdjectivesAdjectives describe nouns. They make the noun more interesting and buildup detail: wonderful, expensive, blue, shiny, mischievious.
7 AdverbsAdverbs describe the verb. They make the verb more interesting – top tip –They usually end in “LY”: quickly, secretly, carefully,Although, you can have adverbials; soon, perhaps, never, sometimes
8 PrepositionsPrepositions tell us when or where something happened: under, around,between, on, opposite, after, over, into, ahead and to.
9 Phrases/Clauses and Subordinate Clause A main clause is a group of words which contain a verb and someoneDoing the action (it makes sense on its own): Ann went to the bank;A complex sentences are those that contain a subordinate clause as well asa main clause; He stayed at home because he was ill.A subordinate clause is is a less important bit of a sentence which does notmake sense on its own .It will be introduced by a linking word such as when, if, because orthat: While you were out, I watched TV – subordinate clause is while youWere out.A phrase is a small part of a sentence, usually without a verb:Under the stairs – prepositional phraseBlue leather shoes – noun phraseVery slowly – adverbial phrase
10 Conjunctions/Connectives Conjunctions/Connectives are words that join two parts of a sentence or clausetogether: but, however, therefore, not withstanding, and, so, meanwhile(and so on).
11 Subject and ObjectThe subject is either a noun or a pronoun and normally the subject comesbefore the verb in a sentence.The Object is a also a noun phrase or a pronoun:She used her old skateboard – she is the subject – skateboard is the object.