2ArticlesThe three articles are “a”, “an” and “the”.
3NounsNouns are naming words. They refer to a name, place, brand or thing.The most popular noun is a common noun – these are a name of a thinghave no capital letter: chair, table, tree.The other most popular noun is a proper noun – these are names ofPeople, Places and Brands and require a capital letter: Mrs Woodward,London, Nike.There are also abstract nouns and collective nouns. An abstract nounIs a word for ideas and concepts: jealousy, boredom, happiness, honesty.A collective noun is a collection of things: pride, swarm, flock. Both these nouns donot need a capital letter – unless they start at the beginning of a sentence.A concrete noun is a noun that refers to people and things that existPhysically and can be seen, touched, smelled, heard and tasted.
4PronounsPronouns are those handy words which save us from repeating the noun. TheyReplace the noun: He, me, she, it, he, her, him, his, you, they, your, their, our,We, them, I, us. There is no need to use a capital letter for a pronoun – unlessIt starts at the beginning of a sentence.Possessive pronouns tell you who or what owns a noun.Relative pronouns introduce more information about the noun.
5VerbsVerbs are doing words. All main verbs have two simple tenses, the presenttense and the past tense: I walk – present; I walked – past;Action verbs – running, bought, putting on, has seen.Verbs of state (states of mind)- feel, hate, wishes,Agreed, mean, belonged, is being, expecting, were tasting.Active and Passive verbs - an active verb is something you are physically doingAn action – a passive verb is something you have already done (you are notdoing it at the moment): The eggs were thrown – passive; The old castle ishaunted by ghosts.Auxiliary Verbs – are verbs which are used together with other verbs:We are going; Lucy has grown; Can you play? The most common auxiliary verbsAre: be, have and do.Modal Verbs – are: can and will.
6AdjectivesAdjectives describe nouns. They make the noun more interesting and buildup detail: wonderful, expensive, blue, shiny, mischievious.
7AdverbsAdverbs describe the verb. They make the verb more interesting – top tip –They usually end in “LY”: quickly, secretly, carefully,Although, you can have adverbials; soon, perhaps, never, sometimes
8PrepositionsPrepositions tell us when or where something happened: under, around,between, on, opposite, after, over, into, ahead and to.
9Phrases/Clauses and Subordinate Clause A main clause is a group of words which contain a verb and someoneDoing the action (it makes sense on its own): Ann went to the bank;A complex sentences are those that contain a subordinate clause as well asa main clause; He stayed at home because he was ill.A subordinate clause is is a less important bit of a sentence which does notmake sense on its own .It will be introduced by a linking word such as when, if, because orthat: While you were out, I watched TV – subordinate clause is while youWere out.A phrase is a small part of a sentence, usually without a verb:Under the stairs – prepositional phraseBlue leather shoes – noun phraseVery slowly – adverbial phrase
10Conjunctions/Connectives Conjunctions/Connectives are words that join two parts of a sentence or clausetogether: but, however, therefore, not withstanding, and, so, meanwhile(and so on).
11Subject and ObjectThe subject is either a noun or a pronoun and normally the subject comesbefore the verb in a sentence.The Object is a also a noun phrase or a pronoun:She used her old skateboard – she is the subject – skateboard is the object.