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Reform movements 1860 - 1920 handcraft morality in design honesty of materials material culture of display.

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Presentation on theme: "Reform movements 1860 - 1920 handcraft morality in design honesty of materials material culture of display."— Presentation transcript:

1 reform movements 1860 - 1920 handcraft morality in design honesty of materials material culture of display

2 reform movements Late Victorian Period (1875 – 1900) –Arts and Crafts (1860-1920) –Aesthetic Movement (1870-1890) –Anglo-Japanese/Amero-Oriental Styles (1880-1900)

3 reform movements machine has separated the artist from the craftsmen—”the villain”—produced degrading work artist/designer makes poor choices craftsmen unhappy—not working on their own designs

4 William Morris believes one should work for love and satisfaction of it wanted to do away with money—bartering & trading goes back to the medieval period for inspiration history

5 opens a shop in England—celebration of hand craft history

6 Morris critiques paper as being lush, 3D & made by machine history

7 Daisy, 1862 hand blocked—not done by machine textile—wallpaper or fabric stylized—not trying to appear real recognizes is working in 2D— ”dishonest” to make it appear 3D on a grid—inorganic purchased only by esoteric—not for aesthetic textile

8 Pimpernell, 1876 fantastic color against muddy color lacy delicate layer in back to provide surface depths textile

9 Strawberry Thief 1883 textile

10 Willow Boughs, 1880s still hand produced—far less complex cheaper to produce textile

11 Walter Crane, 1880s Peacock, 1890s textile designer only upper class can afford work textile

12 Ladderback, 1860-80s historic piece—so vernacular hand crafted wood joinery rushed seat furniture

13 Sussex Chair, 1865 design attributed to Phillip Webb colleague of William Morris minimal carving—a lot of turning on legs furniture


15 Weaving Chair, 1860-80s chair by Morris; artwork by Pre-Raphaelites reform art by rejecting what they considered to be the mechanistic approach first adopted by the Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael and Michelangelo joined together due to commonalities in honesty of materials furniture

16 Morris Reclining Chair 1860-80s Morris competing with Victorian furniture one of first mechanical recliners beaded stretchers— added expense 2D Morris fabric button tufted—not coil spring furniture

17 cottage-like furniture, vernacular, low ceilings often had simple wood surfaces, very minimal use of art handwoven textiles, stylized wallpaper, rush seats on chairs typical arts and crafts interior interior

18 furniture clunky & medieval in nature furniture, textiles and wallpaper all handmade interior William Morris and associates, around 1860

19 Green Drawing Room—created to showcase Morris’ skills interior

20 marquetry piano shows growing interest in using lots of pattern in single composition interior Green Drawing Room, William Morris “Art for Art’s Sake”

21 Owen Jones, THE GRAMMAR OF ORNAMENT, London, 1859 cover sketched & notated any pattern that he saw anywhere ornament

22 Egypt and Greece ornament

23 Byzantine and Renaissance ornament

24 18 th century patterned floor inspired by Jones William Morris also inspired by Jones

25 The Red House, by William Morris & Phillip Webb, at Bexley Heath, near London, 1860s architecture Webb more of an architect all natural materials designed from inside out

26 architecture/ornament Front Door hand painted panel for each season hand-blocked wall paper contrast with simplicity of door

27 architecture The Red House—inspired by…

28 architecture English thatched cottages

29 architecture

30 Dining Sitting Kitchen Drawing Stair Hall architecture/interiors

31 Dining Sitting Kitchen Drawing Stair Hall architecture/interiors less palatial drawing room on second floor particulate space longer corridors

32 interiors Entry hall/stair hall medieval imagery not nearly as refined as Victorian multi-functional— storage/sitting

33 interiors stairwell handcrafted by Morris and his workers

34 interiors exposed wood beams stylized pattern/simplification of a basket weave

35 interiors brick is decorative element moldings & profile out of brick—previously used only as structure

36 interiors brick responds to direction of smoke

37 Art is Long, Life is Brief interiors mottos are a way for inhabitants to express values

38 Drawing Room interiors medieval images on either side of bookcase handcrafted rugs

39 interiors bookcase built-in offers storage/seating board and batten doors with large iron strapwork holding it together

40 ornament example of medieval artwork ornamentation

41 The Orchards, by C.F.A. Voysey, Chorley Wood, Hertfordshire, 1899 architecture Voysey follows Morris’ philosphies Arts and Crafts inspires Modern movement cottage style; vertically shingled roofing; plaster over brick

42 architecture rooflines extend beyond livable space

43 Greyfriars, the Sturgis House, by C.F.A. Voysey, Surrey, England, 1890s architecture does not have corridors uses space efficiently

44 The Orchard, Chorley Wood, Hertfordshire, 1899 interiors stripped down, clean lines—very modern handcraft doesn’t have to look so rough

45 Charles Locke Eastlake, HINTS ON HOUSEHOLD TASTE, pub. London, 1868 furniture book helped to sell William Morris’ vernacular work to middle class

46 “It is unfortunate for the interests of Art at the present time that in civilised countries it has come to be regarded as the result of theories utterly remote from the question of ordinary taste, totally distinct from those principles which influence manufacture and structural science, and independent of any standard of excellence which we might expect to be derived from common sense.” furniture


48 all wood construction; very little ornamentation William Morris

49 Kelmscott Cabinet CFA Voysey furniture board and batten simple construction creates an “arts & crafts” font

50 Hiroshige The Bird Festival in the Fields near Asakusa (Asakusa tambo tori no machi mode), no. 101 in the series One Hundred Views of Famous Places in Edo (Meisho edo hyakkei). 1857 Color woodcut — 335 x 222 mm decorative art American Navy forces east to open ports for trade realized that furniture is very simple—just planes and lines easy to make but very elegant and exotic

51 Anglo- Japanese Sideboard by E. W. Godwin, England, 1870s-1880s furniture furniture with blue and white porcelain becomes latest craze fits into arts and crafts— simple, but looks less vernacular

52 La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, 1863-64, by James McNeill Whistler. Oil on canvas, 199.9 x 116.1 cm. decorative art portrait in Japanese style— severe floor plane kimono, screen & fan

53 4 September, 1904 decorative art Leyland left room in Whistler’s care to make minor changes—primary purpose was to display Leyland’s china collection Whistler let his imagination run wild, “Well, you know, I just painted on. I went on— without design or sketch— putting in every touch with such freedom…And the harmony in blue and gold developing, you know, I forgot everything in my joy of it.”

54 The Peacock Room, by James Whistler, London, 1877 (now in Freer Gallery, Washington D.C.) decorative art/interiors hand-tooled Spanish embossed leather wall covering

55 decorative art Leyland was shocked by the “improvements”— Whistler was terminated shelving meant to imitate oriental architecture peacocks painted on set of doors

56 decorative art/interiors Whistler gained access to Leyland's home—painted two fighting peacocks meant to represent the artist and his patron

57 decorative art one holds a paint brush and the other holds a bag of money his art was characterized by a subtle delicacy, while his public persona was combative

58 Caricature of F. R. Leyland Date c. May-June 1879 Materials Pen and dark brown / black ink on laid paper Dimensions 17.4 cm x 11.2 cm Marks Signed with a butterfly with a barbed tail at the lower centre; inscribed in ink by Whistler: "It occurs to "F.R.L. frill - that he will keep an eye on the assets of the White House."

59 Anglo-japanese movement parcel- gilt and ebonized faux bamboo parlor suite, American, 19 th century furniture

60 The Aesthetic Movement “More is more.” movement of display—display your good taste

61 the quest for sweetness and light: Sunflower (most popular), lily, poppy Greenery-Yallery— color scheme; green to yellow analogous scheme; most common interiors

62 ornament sunflowers look for abstraction in textiles to see difference compared to Victorian interiors

63 ornament poppies birds become popular due to Japanese influence

64 interior look for very different types of furniture to identify aesthetic movement everything was almost like an individual piece of art—very eclectic

65 ornament poppies multiple patterns on one surface— attributed to Owen Jones influence

66 William Morris Furniture, 1860s-1880s Weaving Chair interior Aesthetic Movement bedroom

67 Herter Brothers New York City, 1880s furniture Asian inspiration—ebony & marquetry Arts & Crafts ideal of handcrafted pieces—high art very elite

68 interior Rockefeller interior— magnificence, vibrant color, eclecticism furniture details: fully gilded, dragon on upholstery, mother of pearl, all handcrafted

69 Edwards & Roberts: an ebonized and inlaid gilt-decorated sideboard the mirrored upper section with finely painted panels of birds and flowers, the base having three burr elm drawers above two cupboards inlaid with birds and branches in various woods, circa 1875. Height 68ins (173cm) width 60ins (152.5cm) depth 16.5ins (42cm). furniture simplicity of horizontal and vertical line

70 Walnut Aesthetic Movement corner chair A walnut Aesthetic Movement corner chair in the Thebes style. Circa 1890. Attributed to Liberty & Co. Height: 40"/1020mm. Width: 26"/660mm. Depth: 23"/585mm. furniture seen as an art piece, but meant to be used

71 Victorian Aesthetic Movement portiére embroidered wool on wool worsted. 1880. Length: 82"/2100mm. Width: 62"/1575mm.

72 Cox & Sons Aesthetic Movement triptych screen with painted and stained glass; central panel depicting a crane swallowing a frog. Framed in oak. Circa 1880. furniture crane is popular motif

73 male female living in a sensuous, cultural world “dandy” foppish people easily snub you


75 Miscellaneous Anglo-Japanese / Aesthetic Furniture by E. W. Godwin, England, 1870s-1880s furniture

76 Miscellaneous Anglo-Japanese / Aesthetic Furniture by E. W. Godwin, England, 1870s-1880s Miscellaneous Anglo-Japanese / Aesthetic Furniture, England, 1870s-1880s furniture

77 Miscellaneous American Aesthetic interiors and furniture by the Herter Brothers, NY, 1880s furniture

78 Miscellaneous American Aesthetic interiors and furniture by the Herter Brothers, NY, 1880s furniture

79 Miscellaneous American Aesthetic interiors and furniture by the Herter Brothers, NY, 1880s furniture

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