7“Reiko” What would you do? Assessments indicate that Reiko performs in average to above average range in most academic areas. However, her teacher has noticed Reiko’s frequent talking & asking & answering questions without raising her hand has become an annoying problem to other students & to teacher.What would you do?
8“Brian” What would you do? Brian is a highly competent student, but has long history of antisocial behavior. He is quick to anger, & minor events quickly escalate to major confrontations. He has few friends, & most of his conflicts occur with peers in hallways & cafeteria & on bus. In last 2 months, he has been given 8 days of in school detention & 6 days of out of school suspension. In a recent event, he broke glasses of another student.What would you do?
9Fortunately, we have a science that guides us to… Assess these situationsDevelop behavior intervention plans based on our assessmentMonitor student progress & make enhancementsAll in ways that can be culturally & contextually appropriateCrone & Horner, 2003
10However, context matters…. What factors influence our ability to implement what we know with accuracy, consistency, & durability for students like Rachel, Brian, Mitch, & Reiko?
11A school with 880 students reported over 5,100 office discipline referrals in one academic year. Nearly 2/3 of students have received at least one office discipline referral.Reiko is in this school!
14During 4th period, in-school detention room has so many students that the overflow is sent to the counselor’s office. Most students have been assigned for being in the hallways after the late bell.Brian is in this school!
15On 1st day of school, a teacher found “floral” arrangement on his desk On 1st day of school, a teacher found “floral” arrangement on his desk. “Welcome to the neighborhood” was written on the cardYou are in this School!
16Questions!What would behavior support look like if Brian, & Reiko were in these classrooms & schools?Are these environments safe, caring, & effective?Context Matters!
17SWPBS Logic!Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, durable, salable, & logical for all students(Zins & Ponti, 1990)
18PBIS (aka SWPBS) is for enhancing adoption & implementation of Frameworkfor enhancing adoption & implementation ofof evidence-based interventions to achieve& behaviorally important outcomes forstudentsContinuumAcademicallyAll
19Integrated Elements Supporting Social Competence & Academic AchievementOUTCOMESSupportingDecisionMakingSupportingStaff BehaviorDATASYSTEMSFramework in which we organize what we do….PRACTICESSupportingStudent Behavior
20SWPBIS is about…What Outcomes are Associated with Implementation of PBIS?Schools that establish systems with the capacity to implement SWPBS with integrity and durability have teaching and learning environments that areLess reactive, aversive, dangerous, and exclusionary, andMore engaging, responsive, preventive, and productiveAddress classroom management and disciplinary issues (e.g., attendance, tardies, antisocial behavior),Improve supports for students whose behaviors require more specialized assistance (e.g., emotional and behavioral disorders, mental health), andMost importantly, maximize academic engagement and achievement for all students.
2123 ALL SOME FEW Tertiary Prevention: Specialized CONTINUUM OF IndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk BehaviorCONTINUUM OFSCHOOL-WIDEINSTRUCTIONAL &POSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORTFEW~5%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk Behavior~15%SOMEPrimary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & Settings23ALL~80% of Students
22Effective Social & Academic School Culture Common LanguageMembershipCommon ExperienceCommon Vision/Values
23RCT & Group Design PBIS Studies Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C. W., Thornton, L. A., & Leaf, P. J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), Bradshaw, C. P., Koth, C. W., Bevans, K. B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C. P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K. B., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (in press). Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), Waasdorp, T. E., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (in press). The impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) on bullying and peer rejection: A randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.Reduced major disciplinary infractionsImprovement in aggressive behavior, concentration, prosocial behavior, & emotional regulationImprovements in academic achievementEnhanced perception of organizational health & safetyReductions in teacher reported bullying behavior & peer rejectionImproved school climate
25SW - PBIS GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS TeamSW - PBIS GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSStaff FeedbackReadiness agreements, prioritization, & investments3-4 year implementation commitmentLocal capacity for training, coordination, coaching, & evaluationSystems for implementation integrityAgreementsData-basedAction PlanSAY: In general, the implementation of a school-wide PBIS approach at the school level is built around five main implementation steps.Emphasis REGULAR staff feedback and communication….monthlyTriangle goes for staff as well….100% buy in would be great but not going to happen. Those that always resisting may want to front load them before meetingBlue…6-9 months before kickoff in fallGreen…after implemenationStill need regular staff feedback and communicationInitial agreements but always need to revisit to modify if neededEvaluationImplementation
26Team-led Process Non-Teaching Family Behavioral Capacity Priority & StatusRepresentationSpecialized SupportAdministratorTeamCommunityData-basedDecisionMakingAdministratorStudentSAY: One of the most important steps is to establish or identify an existing group of individuals who can lead the establishment of a school-wide PBS approach. This team must be made of school staff who are respected, have effective communication skills and means, and can influence school policy, organization, and operations.An important factor in effective leadership teaming is ensuring that members of the team agree on how they will conduct business (e.g., agenda, problem solving, voting, etc.). The Conducting Leadership Team Meetings Checklist (see Appendix.1) can be used to assess for and establish agreements about how team meetings will be conducted.TeachingCommunicationsStart withTeam that“Works.”
27Components of SW PBS Focus of Year 1 Primary Prevention School-wide/Classroom SystemsSW-PBS TeamSchool RulesDefine & Teach:ExpectationsRoutinesAcknowledgment SystemDiscipline Systems & Decision MakingHandbookSecondary Prevention Specialized Group SystemsTraining/ Support opportunitiesIndividual Teacher SupportTargeted Group InterventionsTertiary Prevention Individual Student SystemBehavior Support PlanFBA/BIP – Intensive Individualized InterventionsFocus of Year 1
29Behavioral Expectation Grid Defining Expected Behavior across Settings School RulesSettingsBe SafeResponsibleRespectfulHallwayWalk on the right sideAllow others to passHold door open for person behind youHave a pass during class timeUse quiet voicesKeep hands & feet to selfPlaygroundStay in boundariesKeep hands and feet to yourselfBe aware of people around youPut equipment away at breakInclude everyoneFollow game rulesGroup goes to places…walk the areas to uncover issues. Be sure to include those who use areas most (custodian, lunch lady, etc…)Take students to places to train…practice…modelTrain many times per year at first year of implementationMaybe a routines column to take about…placement of hands…
31“G.O.O.S.E.” “DINGER” “1 FREE PERIOD” “GOLDEN PLUNGER” Involve custodianProcedureCustodian selects one classroom/ hallway each week that is clean & orderlySticks gold-painted plunger with banner on wall“1 FREE PERIOD”Contributing to a safe, caring, effective school environmentProceduresGiven by PrincipalPrincipal takes over class for one hourUsed at any timeHow are staff recognized/acknowledged for their efforts in your school?“G.O.O.S.E.”“Get Out Of School Early”Or “arrive late”ProceduresKids/staff nominateKids/staff reward, then pick“DINGER”Reminding staff to have positive interactionProceduresRing timer on regular, intermittent scheduleEngage in quick positive interaction
33Specialized Behavior Support Team District-RegionSchoolSWPBS Leadership TeamSWPBS Tier 1T1 SystemsT1 PracticesSpecialized Behavior Support TeamGroup-based Tier 2T2 SystemsT2 PracticesIndividual Tier 3T3 SystemsT3 Practices
34Components of SW PBS Primary Prevention School-wide/Classroom Systems SW-PBS TeamSchool RulesDefine & Teach:ExpectationsRoutinesAcknowledgment SystemConsequences & Decision MakingHandbookSecondary Prevention Specialized Group SystemsTraining/ Support opportunitiesCICOTargeted Group InterventionsTertiary Prevention Individual Student SystemBehavior Support PlanFBA/BIP – Intensive Individualized Interventions
35What is a Tier 2/Targeted Intervention? - An intervention that:Serves multiple students at one time (15-25 student at once)More efficient use of resources that 1 student at a timeStudents can get started with almost immediately upon referralRequires almost no legwork from referring staff to begin implementation of the intervention with a studentAll school staff know about, understand their roll with, and know the referral process for CICOSYSTEMS NOTE: Resources Required:If program is not self-sufficient… and requires significant organization by referring staff… it’s not a targeted intervention
36Major Features of Targeted Interventions Intervention is continuously availableRapid access to intervention (72 hr)Very low effort by teachersConsistent with school-wide expectationsImplemented by all staff/faculty in a schoolFlexible intervention based on assessmentFunctional AssessmentAdequate resources (admin, team)Weekly meeting, plus 10 hours a weekStudent chooses to participateContinuous monitoring for decision-making
37What is function based support? Foundations in behavioral theory, applied behavior analysis, & pbisAttention to environmental contextEmphasis on “purpose” or function of behaviorFocus on teaching behaviorsAttention to implementers (adult behaviors) & redesign of teaching & learning environments.
45Components of SWPBS Primary Prevention School-wide/Classroom Systems SW-PBS TeamSchool RulesDefine & Teach:ExpectationsRoutinesAcknowledgment SystemConsequences & Decision MakingHandbookSecondary Prevention Specialized Group SystemsTraining/ Support opportunitiesIndividual Teacher SupportTargeted Group InterventionsTertiary Prevention Individual Student SystemBehavior Support PlanFBA/BIP – Intensive Individualized Interventions
46Tier 3 InterventionsStudents requiring individualized assessment & interventionHave not responded to Tier 1 & 2 interventionsBSP/FAA/BIP & Wraparound supports
47For Students with INTENSIVE needs (Tier 3) we need: Interventions individualized to the specific needs of the studentExpertise in the presenting area of concernBehavior Specialist for behavioral concernsKnowledge of StudentKnowledge of ContextPractical FBA or Comprehensive FBA to directly inform development of a Behavior Support Plan
48Practical FBA/Comprehensive FBA Pre-functional assessment interviewDefinesProblem behaviorsRoutines where problems most likelyHypothesis statementTriggers, behaviors, consequencesFunctionConducts ObservationsCreate Behavior Support Plan
49Basic “Logic” SYSTEMS DATA PRACTICES Maximum Student Outcomes Start w/ effective, efficient, & relevant, doablePRACTICESImplementationFidelityI LOVE This animation! Very cool!!!Training+CoachingEvaluationImprove “Fit”Prepare & support implementation
50Northern California PBIS TAC Training Sequence Phase 1: Universal Systems: Tier 1 Phase 2: Secondary Systems: Tier 2 Team Initiated Problem Solving Check In/Check Out Phase 3: Tertiary/Indiv. Student Systems: Tier 3 Practical FBA/BSP PBIS Coaching Training PBIS Coaches Network District PBIS Leadership Team Training School-wide Information System (SWIS)
51Northern California PBIS TAC Training Sequence Training is provided over a three-year periodProfessional Development SessionsTier 1 SWPBIS Site Team(4 x first year)Tier 2/3 PBIS Site Team(3 x second year and 3 x third year)Coaches Training/Coaches Network(4 x first year, 4 x second/third year)District Leadership Action Planning(1 x per year)Design and planning timeOn-site technical assistance
52Commitment of Personnel Site TeamsSite AdministratorGeneral Education StaffSpecial Education StaffClassified StaffPBIS CoachSteve