PURPOSE Provide overview of PBIS (SWPBS) to determine training readiness. PURPOSE Provide overview of PBIS (SWPBS) to determine training readiness.
Challenge Why are we here?
Improving Academic Outcomes
Context Matters! Examples Individual Student vs. School-wide
“Reiko” Assessments indicate that Reiko performs in average to above average range in most academic areas. However, her teacher has noticed Reiko’s frequent talking & asking & answering questions without raising her hand has become an annoying problem to other students & to teacher. What would you do?
“Brian” Brian is a highly competent student, but has long history of antisocial behavior. He is quick to anger, & minor events quickly escalate to major confrontations. He has few friends, & most of his conflicts occur with peers in hallways & cafeteria & on bus. In last 2 months, he has been given 8 days of in school detention & 6 days of out of school suspension. In a recent event, he broke glasses of another student. What would you do?
Fortunately, we have a science that guides us to… Assess these situations Develop behavior intervention plans based on our assessment Monitor student progress & make enhancements All in ways that can be culturally & contextually appropriate Crone & Horner, 2003
However, context matters…. What factors influence our ability to implement what we know with accuracy, consistency, & durability for students like Rachel, Brian, Mitch, & Reiko?
A school with 880 students reported over 5,100 office discipline referrals in one academic year. Nearly 2/3 of students have received at least one office discipline referral. Reiko is in this school!
During 4 th period, in-school detention room has so many students that the overflow is sent to the counselor’s office. Most students have been assigned for being in the hallways after the late bell. Brian is in this school!
On 1 st day of school, a teacher found “floral” arrangement on his desk. “Welcome to the neighborhood” was written on the card You are in this School!
Questions! What would behavior support look like if Brian, & Reiko were in these classrooms & schools? Are these environments safe, caring, & effective? Context Matters!
SWPBS Logic! Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, durable, salable, & logical for all students (Zins & Ponti, 1990)
PBIS (aka SWPBS) is for enhancing adoption & implementation of of evidence-based interventions to achieve & behaviorally important outcomes for students Framework Continuum Academically All
SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Student Behavior OUTCOMES Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement Supporting Decision Making Integrated Elements
SWPBIS is about…
Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ALL SOME FEW
Effective Social & Academic School Culture Common Vision/Values Common Language Common Experience Membership
Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C. W., Thornton, L. A., & Leaf, P. J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group- randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), Bradshaw, C. P., Koth, C. W., Bevans, K. B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). The impact of school- wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C. P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K. B., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (in press). Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), Waasdorp, T. E., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (in press). The impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) on bullying and peer rejection: A randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. RCT & Group Design PBIS Studies Reduced major disciplinary infractions Improvement in aggressive behavior, concentration, prosocial behavior, & emotional regulation Improvements in academic achievement Enhanced perception of organizational health & safety Reductions in teacher reported bullying behavior & peer rejection Improved school climate
Agreements Team Data-based Action Plan ImplementationEvaluation SW - PBIS GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS Staff Feedback Readiness agreements, prioritization, & investments 3-4 year implementation commitment Local capacity for training, coordination, coaching, & evaluation Systems for implementation integrity
Behavioral Capacity Priority & Status Data-based Decision Making Communications Administrator Team Administrator Specialized Support Student Community Non-Teaching Teaching Family Representation Start with Team that “Works.” Team-led Process
Components of SW PBS 1.Primary Prevention School- wide/Classroom Systems – SW-PBS Team – School Rules – Define & Teach: Expectations Routines – Acknowledgment System – Discipline Systems & Decision Making – Handbook 2.Secondary Prevention Specialized Group Systems – Training/ Support opportunities – Individual Teacher Support – Targeted Group Interventions 3.Tertiary Prevention Individual Student System – Behavior Support Plan – FBA/BIP – Intensive Individualized Interventions Focus of Year 1
Emphasizing & Teaching Positive Expectations
Behavioral Expectation Grid Defining Expected Behavior across Settings School Rules SettingsBe SafeResponsibleRespectful Hallway Walk on the right side Allow others to pass Hold door open for person behind you Have a pass during class time Use quiet voices Keep hands & feet to self Playground Stay in boundaries Keep hands and feet to yourself Be aware of people around you Put equipment away at break Include everyone Follow game rules
Acknowledge & Recognize
“GOLDEN PLUNGER” Involve custodian Procedure – Custodian selects one classroom/ hallway each week that is clean & orderly – Sticks gold-painted plunger with banner on wall “1 FREE PERIOD” Contributing to a safe, caring, effective school environment Procedures – Given by Principal – Principal takes over class for one hour – Used at any time “G.O.O.S.E.” “Get Out Of School Early” – Or “arrive late” Procedures – Kids/staff nominate – Kids/staff reward, then pick “DINGER” Reminding staff to have positive interaction Procedures –Ring timer on regular, intermittent schedule –Engage in quick positive interaction How are staff recognized/acknowledged for their efforts in your school?
District-RegionSchool SWPBS Leadership Team SWPBS Tier 1T1 SystemsT1 Practices Specialized Behavior Support Team Group-based Tier 2T2 SystemsT2 PracticesIndividual Tier 3T3 SystemsT3 Practices
Components of SW PBS 1.Primary Prevention School- wide/Classroom Systems – SW-PBS Team – School Rules – Define & Teach: Expectations Routines – Acknowledgment System – Consequences & Decision Making – Handbook 2.Secondary Prevention Specialized Group Systems – Training/ Support opportunities – CICO – Targeted Group Interventions 3.Tertiary Prevention Individual Student System – Behavior Support Plan – FBA/BIP – Intensive Individualized Interventions
- An intervention that: Serves multiple students at one time (15-25 student at once) – More efficient use of resources that 1 student at a time Students can get started with almost immediately upon referral Requires almost no legwork from referring staff to begin implementation of the intervention with a student All school staff know about, understand their roll with, and know the referral process for CICO – SYSTEMS NOTE: Resources Required: If program is not self-sufficient… and requires significant organization by referring staff… it’s not a targeted intervention What is a Tier 2/Targeted Intervention?
Intervention is continuously available Rapid access to intervention (72 hr) Very low effort by teachers Consistent with school-wide expectations Implemented by all staff/faculty in a school Flexible intervention based on assessment – Functional Assessment Adequate resources (admin, team) – Weekly meeting, plus 10 hours a week Student chooses to participate Continuous monitoring for decision-making Major Features of Targeted Interventions
What is function based support? Foundations in behavioral theory, applied behavior analysis, & pbis Attention to environmental context Emphasis on “purpose” or function of behavior Focus on teaching behaviors Attention to implementers (adult behaviors) & redesign of teaching & learning environments.
Only 2 Basic Functions
Examples… “Behavior Education Program” – Fern Ridge Middle School, OR “Check-in Check-out” – Bethel School District, OR “H.U.G.” – Tualatin Elementary School, OR “Social Skills Club” – Missouri “Think Time” – University of Nebraska
Behavior Education Plan (BEP) (Hawkin, Horner, & March, 2002) Weekly BEP Meeting 9 Week Graph Sent Program Update EXIT BEP Plan Morning Check-In Afternoon Check-In Home Check-In Daily Teacher Evaluation Referral, Assessment, & Orientation
GOALS:8:309:3010:3011:3012:301:30 1. RESPECT OTHERS MANAGE SELF SOLVE PROBLEMS RESPONSIBLY Name____________________ Date ____________ Rating Scale 2 = Great 1 = Ok 0 = Goal Not Met Goal _____ Pts Possible _____ Pts Received_____ % of Pts _____ Goal Met? Y N Check In/Out Pt Card
42 SWIS-CICO Support Plan ChangeDescription 10/06/2009Check out with Joe Binder What do you think? Any actions needed?
43 SWIS-CICO Report Support Plan Change Description 09/10/2008Check out with Joe Binder What do you think? Any actions needed? Begin Simple FAA?
44 Behavior Review Decision Flowchart
Components of SWPBS 1.Primary Prevention School- wide/Classroom Systems – SW-PBS Team – School Rules – Define & Teach: Expectations Routines – Acknowledgment System – Consequences & Decision Making – Handbook 2.Secondary Prevention Specialized Group Systems – Training/ Support opportunities – Individual Teacher Support – Targeted Group Interventions 3.Tertiary Prevention Individual Student System – Behavior Support Plan – FBA/BIP – Intensive Individualized Interventions
46 Tier 3 Interventions Students requiring individualized assessment & intervention Have not responded to Tier 1 & 2 interventions BSP/FAA/BIP & Wraparound supports
For Students with INTENSIVE needs (Tier 3) we need: – Interventions individualized to the specific needs of the student – Expertise in the presenting area of concern Behavior Specialist for behavioral concerns Knowledge of Student Knowledge of Context – Practical FBA or Comprehensive FBA to directly inform development of a Behavior Support Plan 47
Practical FBA/Comprehensive FBA Pre-functional assessment interview Defines – Problem behaviors – Routines where problems most likely – Hypothesis statement Triggers, behaviors, consequences Function Conducts Observations Create Behavior Support Plan
Basic “Logic” SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Training + Coaching + Evaluation Improve “Fit” Start w/ effective, efficient, & relevant, doable Prepare & support implementation Implementation Fidelity Maximum Student Outcomes
Northern California PBIS TAC Training Sequence Phase 1: Universal Systems: Tier 1 Phase 2: Secondary Systems: Tier 2 Team Initiated Problem Solving Check In/Check Out Phase 3: Tertiary/Indiv. Student Systems: Tier 3 Practical FBA/BSP PBIS Coaching Training PBIS Coaches Network District PBIS Leadership Team Training School-wide Information System (SWIS)
Northern California PBIS TAC Training Sequence Training is provided over a three-year period Professional Development Sessions Tier 1 SWPBIS Site Team (4 x first year) Tier 2/3 PBIS Site Team (3 x second year and 3 x third year) Coaches Training/Coaches Network (4 x first year, 4 x second/third year) District Leadership Action Planning (1 x per year) Design and planning time On-site technical assistance
Commitment of Personnel Site Teams – Site Administrator – General Education Staff – Special Education Staff – Classified Staff – PBIS Coach