Presentation on theme: "Sea lemon (Archidoris pseudoargus). Warm Up 2/5/15 1.What is a volcanic mountain beneath the oceans surface called? What is it called when it breaks the."— Presentation transcript:
Sea lemon (Archidoris pseudoargus)
Warm Up 2/5/15 1.What is a volcanic mountain beneath the oceans surface called? What is it called when it breaks the ocean’s surface? 2.What features characterize a passive vs. an active margin? 3.Why do some hydrothermal vents look like they are billowing black smoke?
Marine Organism of the day: Left Shark (laevus squalus)
Warm up 2/6 1.How many oceans are there on the planet? 2.With regards to oceanography what does ROV stand for? 3.Why are both inductive and deductive reasoning essential for the scientific process?
Geoduck (Panopea generosa)
Warm up 2/9 1.What two pieces of information are required to calculate depth using SONAR? 2.Trenches are associate with what type of continental margin? 3.The west coast of America is what kind of continental margin?
Earth is the water planet! Earth is the only known planet with liquid water on its surface. Marine organisms are mostly water % water by weight. Water makes life possible!
Water is H2O. It is a polar molecule. Has two ( + ) ends and one ( - ) end
Oxygen and Hydrogen have weak opposite charges that create electrical attractions, or hydrogen bonds between adjacent water molecules. Hydrogen bonds are weak, but these make water different from many other substance on earth.
3 states of water. Liquid, solid, gas Molecules are in constant motion. Temperature reflects the average speed of the molecules, the faster they move, the higher the temperature.
When liquid water cools the molecules move slower and pack closer and take up less space. Cooling increases density.
Water freezes when the molecules move so slowly that the hydrogen bonds take over locking the molecules into a fixed three dimensional pattern known as a crystal.
In ice crystals the molecules are farther apart than in liquid water so water expands as it freezes
Water is extremely unusual in being less dense as a solid than a liquid. A floating layer of ice leaves water below where organisms can live and provides thermal insulation.
If ice didn’t float what would happen as a lake froze?
Finish Mapping Activity
Edible sea urchin (Echinus esculentus)
Warm- Up 1.What are hydrogen bonds? 2.Why is water important for life? 3.What does temperature actually measure? (Note: hot and cold are FEELINGS, not physical properties. Thermometers don’t measure your feelings.)
Composition of Seawater Some substances in seawater comes from the chemical weathering of rocks on land and are carried out to sea. Other elements come from the hydrothermal vents.
Salt Composition Dissolved materials are called solutes. Seawater contains a little of almost everything. But only 6 ions compose over 99% of the material dissolved in seawater. Sodium (Na) and Chloride (Cl) account for about 85%
Salinity – total amount of salt dissolved in seawater. Typically expressed as the number of grams of salt left behind when 1000grams of sea water are evaporated. Example: – 35g of salt are left from evaporating 1000g of seawater. – Salinity was 35 parts per thousand (ppt) or 35 ‰
Javanese Cownose Ray (Rhinoptera javanica)
Warm-Up 2/11 1.What makes up most of the solutes of the ocean? 2.If you have a liter of water with 5 grams of salt in it, what is the salinity in ppt? 3.What are the sources of the oceans solutes?
Principal of Constant proportions The relative amounts of the various ions in seawater are always the same. Initially noted by a chemist on the Challenger, while the salinity of water varied in regions the proportions of particular ions remained relatively stable.
Average salinity of ocean is ~35 ‰ Ranges 33 ‰ - 37 ‰ depending on balance of precipitation and evaporation.
Salinity, Temperature, and Density Temperatures of the ocean vary between -2 and + 30 (28-86F) Below freezing temps are possible because of the salt.
Salinity and temperature affect the density of water. But temperature varies more than salinity in the ocean, so temp is typically the density determining factor.
Temperature decreases with depth.
Transparency One of the most biologically important properties of sea water is that it is relatively transparent, so sunlight can penetrate into the ocean. Photosynthetic organisms need light to grow.
Clear ocean water is most transparent to blue light. Water absorbs other colors more than blue. At depth everything looks blue. If it is red on the surface it looks grey or black at depth. But even blue light gets absorbed past depths of 1000m
Transparency Transparency is strong affected by suspended or dissolved material.
Turbidity is a measure of water clarity how much the material suspended in water decreases the passage of light through the water. Suspended materials include soil particles (clay, silt, and sand), algae, plankton, microbes, and other substances.
How can we measure turbidity? Think-pair-share
Secchi Disk construction activity You will need: – Scissors – A small piece of white paper – String – A BLACK Sharpie – A fender washer – Packing tape (Shared resource) – Pencil
Place washer on paper Trace outside of washer with a pencil. Use the scissors to cut this circle out. Fold circle into quadrants. Crease edges and unfold. Color 2 quadrants black using the sharpie as shown in the image above. “Laminate” the paper with the masking tape. Tape to washer and trim excess tape. Peirce the center of the disk with pencil. Run string through center hole. Tie several knots so washer will not fall off. Construction Instructions
Flowerpot corals (Goniopora spp.)
Warm-Up 2/12 1.What is turbidity? 2.Why is the ocean blue? 3.If you boiled off all the water in a liter of ocean water what is the likely mass of the salt that will remain?
Dissolved gases Gases as and solid materials are dissolved in sea water. Gases dissolve better in cold rather than warm water. So dissolved gases are higher in polar regions than in tropics. Ocean typically contains about 5ml/L Air typically has about 210ml/L
Oxygen content strongly affected by organisms through photosynthesis and respiration. Oxygen is not very dissolvable in water. Most oxygen is released into the atmosphere. This makes water susceptible to oxygen depletion by respiration.
Carbon dioxide is much more soluble than oxygen because it reacts chemically when it dissolves. Carbon Dioxide makes up more than 80% of the dissolved gases in the ocean compares to less than 0.04% in the air. Ocean stores 50x more CO2 than the atmosphere.
Pressure On land pressure is 1 atmosphere (atm) 14.7 psi at sea level. Pressure increases dramatically with depth due to weight of water. +10m of depth = +1 atm of pressure.
Submarines & housing must be specially engineered to withstand pressure As pressure increases gases are compressed.
Mythbusters Diver Video
An atmospheric diving suits
1930 “Tritonia” Diving Armour
As atms increase gases are compressed Organism have air bladders, floats and lungs that shrink and collapse Limits depth range, some organism are injured when brought to the surface.
Barotrauma- physical damage due to significant changes in ambient pressure -Uncontrolled assent from an extended deep dive can cause a condition known as decompression sickness or “the bends”
A Yelloweye rockfish having a bad day.
Turbidity In Nature 1.Interpret the data on the chart. What data is given to you in the chart and what are we inferring from the data? 2.What months have the highest turbidity? 3.What are some trends or patterns you observe in the data? 4.What are some biotic factors that influence turbidity? (Living) 5.What are some abiotic factors that influence turbidity? (Non-living) 6.What would cause these to change from month to month?
Blobfish (Psychrolutes marcidus)
Warm-Up 2/16 1.What is barotrauma? What are some ways it limits marine science? 2.What are the names of the two processes through which organisms influence the dissolved oxygen content of water?
Ocean Circulation Currents move and mix ocean waters and transport heat, nutrients, pollutants, and organisms. Influences habitats and Earth’s climate.
Surface Circulation The wind drives the strongest ocean currents which occur in the surface layer. Both are driven by heat energy from the sun.
Coriolis effect Because the earth is round and rotating anything that moves over its surface tends to turn a little rather than moving in a straight line.
Causes deflection to the right in the northern hemisphere Deflects things to the left in the southern hemisphere.
Wind driven surface currents combine into huge more or less circular systems called gyres.
Thermohaline Circulation and the Great ocean conveyor Ocean is 3D and the gyre reflect circulation only at the surface and not at depth. Surface waters are isolated from deeper waters by difference in density over much of the ocean.
Densest water sinks, causing ocean layering (stratifying) Deep water is cold and dense. Surface water is warm and “light”
Three Layered Ocean Surface layer (Down to m) – Mixed by wind, waves and currents – Known as mixed layer – Can extend to bottom on continental shelf – Warm and less dense.
Intermediate layer (Down to m) – Contains main thermocline, a region where water temperature rapidly decreases. – a transition zone between warm surface water and cold water below. – Thermocline not on continental shelf (too shallow)
Deep and Bottom Layers (depths below 1,500m) Very cold (4 degrees Celsius)
Downwelling- surface water becomes more dense and sinks displacing and mixing with deeper water.
Circulation of water due to differences in density determined by temperature and salinity cause Thermohaline circulation.
Great ocean conveyor Global thermohaline circulation mixes the oceans on a timescale of about 4,000 years. Critical in regulating earth’s climate. Fluctuations cause climate variations.
Waves Wind also causes waves, in addition to currents. – Crest – Trough – Height – Wavelength
Water particles don’t go anywhere, they just move in circles. Waves transmit energy but do not transport water.
Wave size correlates with speed and duration of wind. Also the fetch. The span of open water over which the wind blows.
Tides Caused by gravitational pull of the moon and sun and by the rotation of the Earth moon and sun system.
Moon pulls water toward it. On opposite side bulges due to centrifugal force.