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Coach Williams Room 310B.  Physical Oceanography.

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Presentation on theme: "Coach Williams Room 310B.  Physical Oceanography."— Presentation transcript:

1 Coach Williams Room 310B

2  Physical Oceanography

3  Objectives: ◦ Identify methods used by scientists to study Earth’s oceans ◦ Discuss the origin and composition of the oceans ◦ Describe the distribution of oceans and major seas

4  The study of Earth’s oceans

5  Sonar: SOund NAvigation and Ranging”  Mapping ocean floors  Side-scan sonar: angles  Satellites: monitor water temp/ waves

6  Earth: 4.6 billion years old ◦ Ocean sedimentary rock ◦ Igneous rock- lava chilled quickly = water  Where did ocean water come from? ◦ Meteorites colliding release water ◦ 0.05% of meteorites are water ◦ Volcanism: water vapor

7  Oceans: 97% of Earth’s water  Freshwater/glaciers: 3%  Sea Level: level of the ocean ◦ Ice makes sea levels vary ◦ Sea floor rising/falling  71% of planet is covered by oceans  Major Oceans: Pacific, Atlantic, Indian  Other oceans: Arctic & Antarctic  Seas: smaller than oceans and usually land- locked

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9  Objectives: ◦ Compare/contrast the physical and chemical properties of seawater ◦ Explain ocean layering ◦ Describe the formation of deep-water masses

10  96.5% water & 3.5% dissolved salt (NaCl)  Salt is metal & group17 on periodic table  Salinity: amount of dissolved salt ◦ Average: 35ppt (parts per thousand) ◦ Lower: polar regions, river/ocean, high precipitation ◦ Higher: low precipitation/high evaporation  Salt: Volcanism, weathering/rivers  Dissolved gasses: O, N, CO 2  Salt balance: precipitate, ocean spray, animals

11  Density: more dense than pure water >1 ◦ Salinity, temperature  Freezing point lowered (-2 ° C)  Darkness: ocean water absorbs light (100m)

12  Range of surface temp.: -2 ° C through 30 ° C (Avg=15 ° C)  Depth & temp.: deeper = colder  Temp. Profile: plots temp. with depth  3 Layers (based on temp./density) ◦ Surface layer ◦ Thermocline: rapidly decreasing temp. ◦ Bottom layer

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14  Warm tropic water rises  Polar waters sink  3 Ocean Masses: ◦ Antarctic Bottom Water ◦ North Atlantic Deep Water ◦ Antarctic Intermediate Water

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16  Objectives: ◦ Describe the physical properties of waves ◦ Explain how tides form ◦ Compare/contrast various ocean currents

17  Wave: movement that carries energy  Caused by wind  Water moves up and down; energy moves forward

18  Crest: tallest part  Trough: lowest part  Wavelength: distance between wave  Wave base: how deep water is disturbed ◦ ½ of wavelength  Speed of wave affected by wavelength ◦ Speed = wavelength x frequency  Wave height: distance from crest to trough  Wind speed  Wind duration  Fetch: how much open water

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20  Breakers: collapsing waves  Friction with bottom slows water down  Faster waves catch slower moving water  Faster water at top  Shapes shoreline

21  Periodic rise/fall of sea level ◦ High Tide: highest level ◦ Low Tide: lowest level  Tidal range: difference between two levels

22  Gravitational pull: Earth, Moon, Sun  Gravity depends on mass and distance ◦ Sun: larger mass (Solar Tides) ◦ Moon: closer (Lunar Tides)  Spring tides: Sun/Moon/Earth aligned ◦ Tides are higher/lower than normal

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24  Density currents: ◦ Caused by density differences (salinity/temp.) ◦ Slow moving  Surface currents: ◦ Wind driven currents ◦ Top 100m ◦ Faster ◦ Predictable patterns  Gyres: circular current systems

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27  Movement of water up and down  Brings nutrients from deep


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