H2O molecule Hooray for Polarity!!!! Polarity= Having a positively and a negatively charged end.
Everything!. This interaction is call "Hydrogen Bonding". It is a type of weak electrostatic attraction (positive to negative). Because each and every one of the water molecules can form four Hydrogen Bonds, an elaborate network of molecules is formed. What does the polarization have to do with the properties of water?
H2O properties Adhesion and Cohesion Ability to absorb and release heat Density
Adhesion and Cohesion Cohesion: H2O molecules are attracted to other H2O molecules. Adhesion: H2O molecules are attracted to other substances. Surface Tension is the result of cohesion. It allows this water strider to sit atop the water.
Water has a high specific heat capacity-the amount of heat needed to raise its temperature a certain amount. How does this effect the climate? What would happen if water had a LOW specific heat capacity? Absorbing and Releasing Heat
Water is less dense as a solid. VERY important for life on earth…..Why? Density = mass/volume The mass of a substance per unit volume
Phases of Water Condensation= Going from GAS to LIQUID. Evaporation= Going from LIQUID to GAS. Freezing= Going from LIQUID to SOLID Sublimation= Going from SOLID to GAS
Energy : The ability to do work. Convection Conduction Radiation
Convection Occurs in liquids and gases Caused by differences in density Convective heat transfer
Conduction Occurs in Solids Caused by a collision of molecules
Radiation Energy that travels through a material or through space. Travels in waves. Examples: Light, heat and sound
Water, water Everywhere…. Oceans~96.5% Fresh water~2.5% Ice Ice Groundwater Groundwater Surface Fresh Water Surface Fresh Water Atmosphere and soil Atmosphere and soil ~71% of the earth is covered with water
The Ocean The top 3 meters of the ocean hold a lot of heat. Ocean Currents redistribute this heat toward the earths poles The Gulf Stream carries warm water north along the east coast
Surface zone (mixed layer): Water temp higher at surface because of direct sunlight (may also be called the sunlight zone) Waves and currents mix surface water and transfer heat downward Extends 100-400 meters Warmer at equator Only place where enough light is present to grow marine plants
Thermocline The transition layer between the mixed layer at the surface and the deep water layer. separates the upper mixed layer from the calm deep water below varies in depth. Factors that affect the depth and thickness of a thermocline include seasonal weather variations, latitude and longitude, and local environmental conditions.
Deep bottom layer Area of very cold water just under the thermocline. Usually between 0 – 5 degrees Celsius. Extends 1000-4000 meters Water down here is denser and not well mixed.
Salinity A measure of dissolved solids in sea water Number of grams of dissolved salts in 1 kilogram of water Water with high salinity is more dense.
Salts and other materials in ocean water come from: Volcanic activity in oceans Erosion of land areas Wave action along the shoreline
Halocline= Area where salinity increases rapidly with depth.
Upwelling Process in which surface water moves farther out into the ocean and deep water moves upward to replace the surface water
Ocean Currents: Masses of ocean water that flow from one place to another Surface Currents: movements of water that flow horizontally in the upper part of the ocean’s surface cold, dense currents that flow very slowly beneath surface of ocean Deep density currents: cold, dense currents that flow very slowly beneath surface of ocean
Surface Currents Develop from friction between the ocean and the wind blowing across its surface driven by the "prevailing winds" through an area. These prevailing winds are influenced by temperature differences in the Earth's surface over long distances
Deep Density Currents cold, dense currents that flow very slowly beneath surface of ocean occurs when denser seawater moves towards an area of less dense seawater