Presentation on theme: "Finding literature for your Computing project. Referencing literature in your report Understanding the problem (20 marks) –“evidence of a systematic literature."— Presentation transcript:
Referencing literature in your report Understanding the problem (20 marks) –“evidence of a systematic literature search” Produce a solution (40 marks) –Project methodology Preparation of solution (20 marks) Delivery of solution (20 marks) Evaluate the solution (20 marks) –Have you “Compared my solution to other solutions?” Write up the work (15 marks) –Referencing & bibliography
Literature review – what are the issues? Looking at the right sources Getting a grip on the process Finding the full text Managing the information and references found Reading Note-taking Citing and referencing sources correctly and consistently
Knowledge building increase your knowledge of a subject find out about the work of researchers in your subject area avoid solving a problem that has already been tackled elsewhere keep up-to-date Evidence put your work into context establish a foundation for your work and the arguments you use show you have considered different approaches and explain why you accept or reject them direct the reader to more detailed information about previous work Why search the literature?
Which sources do you use to search for information?
Where are you going to look? Textbooks Handbooks Encyclopaedia Journal articles Conference papers Review articles Technical reports Legislation Standards broad overview of your subject area finding out the basics and informing further research data/properties Popular journals: ‘magazine’ format, e.g. New scientist, Flight International Academic journals: High-level and specific. Often peer reviewed. technical, business or legal information to be applied to the problem at hand
Where are you going to look? Textbooks Handbooks Encyclopaedia Journal articles Conference papers Review articles Technical reports Market research Standards Library catalogue Synthesis digital library Referex/EngNetBase Safari COPAC Engineering Village Scopus ACM digital library EBSCO business source premier PubMed British Standards Online Mintel/Euromonitor Nexis (news, company info) Library catalogue
Library Catalogue Finding books (print & online) Finding the full text of journal articles from reference details Databases Discovering what journal articles have been written in a subject area Web of Science
Get everything down in one place Make connections between ideas Add in new concepts or ideas as they occur Develop an overview of a subject / issue Concept maps
Key stage 2 Online mathematics games for key stage two accessibility home school programming php / html Learning styles SATs interactivity 7-11 yrs National curriculum teaching styles Java python VLE / moodle customisation
Search techniqueExample Truncation * (to search for words which begin with the same letters) comput* (compute, computed, computer, computation...) Quotation marks “…” (to search for a phrase) “business information system” Wildcards * or ? to find alternate spellingsorgani?ation AND (to search for both words together)market AND cloud computing OR (to search for either word/phrase)consumer OR customer NOT (to exclude a word/phrase)hardware NOT software Search techniques
Finding and saving results Email, save or print references you find Locate the full text –Look for the ‘view full text’ button –Use the ‘check@leeds’ button –Open a new tab for the Library catalogue and search for the journal title not the article title
Finding articles from a reference CAREY, M. ; S. CARVILLE. Testing schedule performance and reliability for train stations. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 2000, 51(6), p.666-682 Check to make sure the right year is available journal of the operational research society
Shelfmark shows where to find print copies in the Library – check what volumes/years are available Check which years are available online Links to journal homepage TITLE
Conference cybernetics Finding conference papers BUFORD Jr., W.L. and C.R. ANDERSEN. Definition of the kinematic plant for the human musculoskeletal system. IN: The International Conference on System, Man and Cybernetics, 10- 12 Oct. 2005, Waikoloa, HI, USA, pt. 2, pp.1246-51. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2005.
Document Supply service Getting books and articles we don’t have at Leeds Request form online –Library homepage ‘Essentials’ –£5 per request Articles – secure PDF to print out Books/standards – borrow for 4 weeks (usually)
How to cite and reference Referencing styles –Harvard (author-date) –Numeric You must be consistent –Use one style only –Provide same information for each reference type –Same punctuation and style (e.g. bold, italics) –Give full, unabbreviated, information –Each citation should have a reference at the end of the text –Each reference should be cited in the text –Do not use footnotes
use a quote from a book or a journal paraphrase or summarise someone else’s work using your own words copy text from a web page use a diagram/image from a book or webpage use data, unless you gather it yourself You do not need to use a reference if you: –cite common knowledge e.g. E=mc 2 or the Prime Minister is David Cameron You must reference when you…
Wigley and Edmonds (2005) and Bachu et al. (1992) identify the major contributing factor towards climate change as increasing emissions of so-called greenhouse gases. This upward trend in emissions is a major concern and is predicted to rise significantly if action is not taken (United Nations 1998). This could have disastrous consequences: “it can endanger agriculture, tourism, and the economy, it can jeopardize water and food supplies” (Harvey 2000 p.135). Citing in text in Harvard or author-date style
Harvard References (alphabetical by author) BACHU, S.; D. BONIJOLY; J. BRADSHAW; R. BURRUSS; S. HOLLOWAY; N.P. CHRISTENSEN; O.M. MATHIASSEN. 2007. CO2 storage capacity estimation: methodology and gaps. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 1(4), pp.431-437. HARVEY, L.D. 2000. Global warming: the hard science. Harlow: Pearson Education. UNITED NATIONS. 1998. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [online]. [Accessed 20th October 2010]. Available from : http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php WIGLEY, J. and T. EDMONDS 2005. The Greenhouse effect, climatic change and ecosystems. Chichester: Wiley.
Avoid plagiarism: quote, cite and reference Golden rules: –Always write down where the information in your notes has originated –Put quotation marks around direct quotes in your notes –Mark what are your own thoughts / interpretation and what you have paraphrased Develop a system for collecting references –EndNote (and other) software can write your reference list for you
Essentials box on your subject page for: –Library referencing pages –Online referencing tutorials –EndNote tutorial –Plagiarism topic page Help with referencing and plagiarism
3 different ways to read Skimming Speed = Fast Getting the gist, picking up the main ideas, reading with a clear purpose and objective in mind. Scanning Speed = Fast Searching quickly for facts and details, looking for the answers to specific questions. Pick out keywords. Close reading Speed = Slow Focused and concentrated reading, analysing, evaluating and questioning the text.
Linear note-taking Systematic Example from; Divan, A. 2009. Communication skills for the Biosciences: A graduate guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p 97. Cornell notes
Try Cornell Notes or SQ4R active reading SQR4: Survey Question Read Recite Record Review [Revise/Reflect]
Visual alternatives Mind-mapping on paper –Software : Mindgenius –Online (http://www.mindmeister.com/)http://www.mindmeister.com/
http://library.leeds.ac.uk/tutorials/thefinalchapter/ Advice & good practice guidance Videos of staff and students at Leeds Tip sheets to print out Further reading & resources
New! Skills collection Find the complete Skills Collection on level 8 of the Edward Boyle Library
Critical analysis of the literature When was this piece of research done? Is it primary (original) research? What are the main conclusions? How does it compare to what I already know? What are the important concepts / ideas on which the work is based? Are there any weaknesses with the ideas being shown? Are there any significant challenges to this data? Does the author make any assumptions - stated/unstated - are they valid? What’s the most convincing aspect of the argument presented? Could any improvements be made to the ideas? What are the implications/consequences if the argument is right or wrong?
Managing your search Save the references you retrieve –Mendeley / Zotero –EndNote Find the articles –full text links, Library Catalogue or Document Supply (£5) Evaluate critically, make notes as you go Label photocopies/printouts Follow up references –note any recurring authors