Presentation on theme: "TBL - English 5th-10th grade: First session. Task design: Lynne Cameron Cameron’s model of Task design (2002) involves 3 phases (pre- while and post-task)"— Presentation transcript:
Task design: Lynne Cameron Cameron’s model of Task design (2002) involves 3 phases (pre- while and post-task) Her model also involves 4 key aspects: Learning goals Activities Demand Support
Lynne Cameron: Learning goals Pre-phase: often centres on core vocabulary necessary for the Task, core language structures (questions/answers, key sentences, gambits) – and creating motivation for the Task. While-phase: often same language goals as in pre-phase + using strategies to communicate in the foreign language in a situation Post-phase: that learners become aware of the language they have used in the Task – e.g. checking core vocabulary, language structures and taking time to reflect on language points that came up. Appreciation of learner products/output also plays a part here
Lynne Cameron: Demand Pre-phase: often involves learning new words and understanding the Task While-phase: often the demands here are connected with communication – obstacles that stop learners from communicating during the core activity/Task Post-phase: demands here often involves meta-language – knowing words to talk about language; recalling vocabulary and storing information.
Lynne Cameron: Support ‘Support’ includes pictures, handouts, glossaries, model texts, teacher advice – in short any help that can make learners meet the demands Pre-phase: often flashcards, pictures, explaining meaning of words, saying words out loud, spelling them, providing examples. Activities here should be fun While-phase: dictionaries, model texts, handouts with lines/dialogue, etc. Whatever helps learners stay active during the core activity/Task Post-phase: Learning logs, exercises, crossword puzzles, classroom/pair reflection time
Task example: Superheroes Pre-work: knowing the genre – knowing the task. Presentation and brainstorm While-work: making the story of the character – presenting to others. Post-work: focus on form: on-demand language support. Notes for ”My language diary” and summation
Pre-work: Superheroes as storytelling Creating a superhero character involves establishing the genre Genre requirements: - The basic drive is Fairytale/Fantasy – the fight between good and evil Character requirements: - Characters must obey the Magic Code (Nicolajeva 1988): supernatural elements have a limit; for every spell, there is a counterspell. Even Superman is weak in the face of kryptonite. - Superheroes as magic characters are defined by powers, mission and identity (Coogan, 2006)
Case in point: Batman Powers: has no supernatural powers, but instead a James Bond-like array of gadgets. His brains, money and physical training together make up his powers. Mission: to fight crime in Gotham City – motivated by the murder of his parents when he was a boy. Identity: Batman/Bruce Wayne. Batman is masked and cloaked to conceal Bruce Wayne’s identity. Wayne deliberately cultivates a private identity as a superficial upperclass bachelor far from Batman’s actions in back alleys.
While-work: create character Start out by brainstorming your character: draw, act out - if it helps Then make HERO CARD together: key words are OK – as long as you can remember and re-tell the character’s story later
While-work: present character Carrousel feedback: Get feedback from others! Feedback Criteria: - powers, mission and identity: do they make a whole character?
Post-work: language focus Take a moment to reflect with your partners: which langauge issues came up when making the HERO CARD and when presenting it? Issues might involve: - spelling, pronunciation, grammar, - unknown words, words with new meaning, phrases you haven’t heard before Write down notes on the back of HERO CARD
Issues that came up Enhance – spelling ‘sammensatte ord’ – compound words Disguise – spelling ? Word (arch nemesis) Name for unicorn horn? – spiralling horn
Condition: a need for differentiation Learners 5th – 10th grade in English have communicative competences in English that vary over a very wide spectrum. Looking at the competence goals (both new FFM and former FM), there is a clear expectation that learners enter the Fluency Phase during the intermediate stage (5th-7th grade) and break into the Sophistication Phase during the advanced stage (8th-10th grade. A relatively small number of learners do not meet this expectation; most learners do. The basic premise for 5th-10th grade English teachers is therefore that a) the goals are fairly ambitious; b) the learners’ competences vary greatly and c) expetancy and actual performance are both high
What does that mean for TBL? That understanding and negotiation of meaning are often challenged by uneven relationships That intensive training in tasks is often highly modelled at beginner/early intermediate stages, while there is an increasing focus on spontaneous use of language throughout late intermediate and advanced stages That evaluation and post-task work often needs to be individualized