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DEVELOPMENTS OF EU ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY. EU ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ► No explicit Treaty provision for any environmental policy ► Nowadays: + 200 pieces.

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Presentation on theme: "DEVELOPMENTS OF EU ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY. EU ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ► No explicit Treaty provision for any environmental policy ► Nowadays: + 200 pieces."— Presentation transcript:

1 DEVELOPMENTS OF EU ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

2 EU ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ► No explicit Treaty provision for any environmental policy ► Nowadays: pieces of legislation covering almost all policy areas (air, water, soil, noise, birds, habitats, biodiversity, urban and hazardous waste, chemicals, biotechnologies, genetically modified organisms, energy, climate change, impact and risk assessment, civil protection, etc.)

3 ► Alternative forms of regulation: market, self- regulation, eco-audit, eco-labelling, public information, etc. ► A shared (single) policy with the member states (Europeanization) ► 6 Environmental Action Programmes ( )

4 5 established Principles  Precaution (assess, appraise and communicate risks that science is not yet able to evaluate fully)  Prevention (instead of reaction)  Rectifying pollution at source  “Polluter pays”  Subsidiarity (EU action only when it can deal with problems more effectively than national or regional governments).

5 Global Dimension ► A common Strategy for Sustainable Development ► The most progressive environmental policy in the world ► Environmental considerations into other EU external policies (trade, cooperation, etc.) ► A proactive international player (i.e. Kyoto) ► Approximately one third of Community environmental policy aims to implement legally binding international commitments.

6 Why a European policy? ► Transborder pollution (subsidiarity) ► Harmonization of environmental standards (internal market) ► European Commission and EP increasing activism ► Member states pushers ► Growing public opinion awareness (Green groups and parties)

7 However… The state of the European environment still is a source of growing concern: ► Implementation (normative) gap ► Integration gap (EPI), ► New Challenges (enlargement, Kyoto)

8 An Incremental Process ► Original sources of EU regulation: art. 100 (harmonization) and 308 ECT (implicit powers) ► 1967: First directive on “classification, labelling and packaging of dangerous substances” ► 1970: First directive on “car emission standards caused by diesel engines” (optional harmonisation) ► 1979: Birds directive ► 1980: Minimum standards for drinking water Directive ► 1985: Environmental Impact Assessment Directive

9 ► 1988: Large combustion plants emissions ► 1990: Public access to envir information ► 1992: Habitats directive ► 1994: European Environmental Agency ► 1994: Implementing the Montreal Protocol of the Vienna Convention (Ozone layer) ► 1996: Directive on integrated pollution prevention and control ► 2000: Framework directive on water ► 2002: Ratification of Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change

10 Environmental Action Plans ► : polluter pays principle  Reduce and prevent pollution  Protect the environment and improve quality of life  Support for international initiatives ► : strengthening control on implementation ► : shift from control to prevention; impact assessment, integration of environmental policy considerations in other fields ► : from regulation to economic instruments (taxes, incentives) ► : “Towards Sustainable Development” ► : “The Future is in our Hands”…

11 External pressures ► 1970 – US Environmental Agency ► UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm) ► st EAP (Principle “Polluter Pays”) ► Txernobil nuclear accident ► UN Brundtland Report ► 1992 – Rio Summit ► 1992 – Vth Environment Action Programme (“Towards Sustainability”) ► Johannesburg Summit ► 2001 – EU SD Strategy

12 Internal pressures ► Economic expansion-recession ► Environmental disasters ► Seveso dioxins (1976)-“Seveso directive” on the major-accident hazards of certain industrial activities (1982) ► Accidental or deliberate Marine Pollution directive ► Rivers degradation: Rhine pollution Convention (2000) ► Public opinion awareness: Green movement and parties

13 Internal Market Pressures ► The Environment as an economic imperative (Free Market competition) ► Concern of environmental protection as a potential threat for market distortions ► Competitive disadvantage as a result of “environmental dumping” ► New decision making rules (SEA)

14 Transboundary pollution ► Air (acid rain) ► Rivers (Rhin) ► Seas ► Birds ► Hazardous Waste moving across borders

15 THE CONSTITUTIONALIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ► The Single European Act (1986) ► Maastricht (1992) ► Amsterdam (1997)

16 SINGLE EUROPEAN ACT (1986) ► EP becomes a Common policy ► Integration of environmental considerations into the other EC policies ► Improving environmental quality as a legitimate Comunity objective  Preserve, protect and improve the quality of the environment  Protecting human health  Ensure a prudent and rational use of natural Resources

17 SEA (AUE) ► QM voting for environmental decisions necessary for the completion of the Internal Market (art.100) ► After a Community harmonisation measure has been adopted, Member States may:  Maintain existing national provisions to protect the environment  Introduce new national provisions to protect it

18 THE TREATY OF MAATRICHT (1992) ► The Rio Summit ► “Sustainable growth” as one main objective of the EU (art. 2) ► The Environment is a full common policy ► Includes the precautionary principle (art. 130) ► Penalty payment for non-compliance (art. 171) ► QM voting and co-decision procedure with exceptions (tax policy, territoirial setting, energy) ► Cohesion Fund for Env. infrastructures

19 THE TREATY OF AMSTERDAM (1997) Enhances: ► The importance of SD and environmental protection ► Subsidiarity (decisions at the lowest level) ► The international role of the EU

20 SD and Amsterdam ► SD becomes one of the main objectives of the EU as important as eco and social progress (art. 2) ► It is one of the Union’s main tasks ► “Environmental protection requirements must be integrated into the definition and implementation of Community policies and activities into the other policies” (art. 6) ► Integration is one one the means of promoting SD

21 5th Environment Action Program ( )-Towards Sustainability ► The features of sustainability  to maintain the overall quality of life  to maintain continuing access to natural resources  to avoid lasting environmental damage  SD meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

22 5th EAP – 2 major principles 1. The integration of the environmental dimension in all major policy areas as a key factor: environmental protection targets can only be achieved by involving those policy areas causing env deterioration 1. Only by replacing the command-and-control approach with shared responsibility between the various actors (governments, industry and the public) can commitment to agreed measures be achieved

23 Mid-term assessment (1996) ► 5 priority areas 1) improving integration of the envir into other policies (CAP, transport, energy, industry and tourism 2) Use of a wider range of instruments (see next) 3) Increased implementation and enforcement measures by improved and simplified legislation 4) Additional action in the field of communication and information 5) Reinforcing the global Union’s role

24 A wider range of policy instruments Legislation to set env standards Legislation to set env standards Market-based instruments (taxes, incentives, voluntary agreements and instruments, etc.) to encourage the production and use of environmentally friendly products and processes Market-based instruments (taxes, incentives, voluntary agreements and instruments, etc.) to encourage the production and use of environmentally friendly products and processes Horizontal support measures (EEA, R+D Programs, public information, education, training Horizontal support measures (EEA, R+D Programs, public information, education, training Sectoral and spatial planning Sectoral and spatial planning Environmental Impact Evaluation Environmental Impact Evaluation Financial support (CAP, SF, Cohesion, LIFE, URBAN, etc) Financial support (CAP, SF, Cohesion, LIFE, URBAN, etc)

25 LIFE ► Financial Instrument for the Environment, introduced in It co-finances projects in three areas: ► LIFE Nature: conserve natural habitats and the wild fauna and flora of EU interest, according to the Birds and Habitats directives, thus supporting implementation of the European Union's nature conservation policy and the Natura 2000 Network. LIFE NatureLIFE Nature ► LIFE-Environment: implementation of Community policy and legislation on the environment in the EU and CCs. Demonstration and development of new methods for the protection and the enhancement of the environment. LIFE-Environment ► LIFE-Third Countries: technical assistance activities for promoting SD in third countries. Development of environmental management capacities, both for our administrative partners outside the Union and for companies and NGOs. LIFE-Third CountriesLIFE-Third Countries

26 ► ► El Reglamento LIFE define cinco ámbitos de intervención: ordenación y aprovechamiento del territorio; gestión de aguas; reducción del impacto ambiental de las actividades económicas; gestión de residuos; reducción del impacto ambiental de los productos mediante una política integrada de productos.

27 Procedimiento legislativo LIFE ► February/March 2007: Formal meeting of the Conciliation Committee 28 November 2006 : Conciliation Committee constitutive meeting ► 24 October 2006 : EP Plenary vote on LIFE+ (Legislative resolution 2nd reading) ► 14 September 2006 : EP Committee for Environment, Public Health and Food Safety : Isler Béguin (Greens/EFA, FR) recommendation for second reading on LIFE+ ► 27 June 2006 : EU Environment Council reaches agreement on LIFE+ ► 26 May 2006 : Commission proposes revised budget (EUR 2,097.9 for LIFE ). ► 2 December 2005: Environment Council reached partial political agreement on LIFE+. ► 7 July 2005: EP Plenary vote on LIFE+ (legislative resolution 1st reading Codecision) ► 14 April 2005: Opinion of the Committee of the Regions on LIFE+ (OJ C 231 of ). ► 29 September 2004: Commission proposes LIFE+ to run from COM(2004) 621 final.

28 La Agencia Europea de Medio Ambiente ► ► Información sólida e independiente acerca del medio ambiente. ► ► Principal fuente de información para los responsables del desarrollo, adopción, aplicación y evaluación de las políticas medioambientales, así como el gran público. ► ► Cuenta con 31 Estados miembros: los 27 de la ► ► Unión, además de Bulgaria, Islandia, Liechtenstein, Noruega, Rumanía y Turquía.

29 Clientes ► ► La Comisión Europea, el Parlamento Europeo, el Consejo (especialmente a través de sus presidencias) y los estados miembros. ► ► Otras instituciones, como el CdR y el CES ► ► Otros usuarios: la comunidad empresarial, el mundo académico, ONG, etc..

30 Funciones ► Registrar, recopilar, analizar y difundir datos sobre el estado del medio ambiente. ► Proporcionar a la Comunidad y a los Estados miembros la información objetiva necesaria para elaborar y aplicar políticas eficaces y acertadas en materia de medio ambiente. ► Contribuir al control de las medidas medioambientales. ► Trabajar para que los datos sean comparables a escala europea. ► Favorecer el desarrollo e integración de técnicas de previsión en el ámbito del medio ambiente. ► Garantizar una difusión amplia de información medioambiental fidedigna.

31 Fuentes ► ► Una amplia gama de fuentes. ► ► Eionet: Red europea de información y observación del medioambiente. ► ► La AEMA tiene la responsabilidad de desarrollar esta red y coordinar sus actividades. ► ► Colabora con los Puntos Focales Nacionales (agencias nacionales de medio ambiente o los ministerios de medio ambiente), responsables de coordinar las redes nacionales (alrededor de 300 entidades en total). ► ► Entre las tareas principales de los Puntos Focales Nacionales están la identificación de las necesidades de información, la recogida de datos e informaciones procedentes, entre otras, de actividades de vigilancia en los Estados miembros y su envío a la AEMA, así como el apoyo a la AEMA en el análisis y uso de la información y en la difusión de ésta entre los usuarios finales

32 Sectores ► la calidad del aire; ► la calidad de las aguas; ► el estado del suelo, de la fauna y de la flora; ► el uso del suelo y los recursos naturales; ► la gestión de residuos; ► las emisiones sonoras; ► las sustancias químicas; ► la protección del litoral y marina.

33 The preparation of the VIth EAP ► In July 1998 (30 months after the proposal was presented by the COM!!) the EP and the CM agreed in concialition a text on the Review of the Vth EAP ► The Helsinki European Council (Dec. 1999) invited the COM to “prepare a long-term strategy on economic, social and ecological SD” to be submitted to the Gothemburg Council (June 2001)

34 Göthembourg Summit (June 2001) COM method: consultation paper to generate discussion and inputs from other EU institutions and civil society Compehensive strategies of 9 Councils: Environment, Transport, Energy, Agriculture, Industry, Internal Market, Development, ECOFIN, General Affairs

35 5 Key approaches to 1) Ensure the implementation of existing legislation 2) Integrate env concerns into all relevant policy areas 3) Work closely with business and consumers to identify solutions 4) Ensure better and more accessible information for citizens 5) Develop a more env conscious attitude towards land use

36 Environment 2010: Our Future, Our Choice The 6th EAP ► 4 priority areas  Climate change  Nature and biodiversity  Environment and health  Natural resources and waste

37 ► Approaches emphazise the need for more effective implementation and more innovative solutions ► A wider constituency must be addressed, including business who can gain form EP ► The Program seeks new and innovative instruments for meeting complex challenges

38 ► Action must be taken by all at all levels: public authorities, citizens and business ► Changes in consumption and investment patterns are needed ► Political leadership is essential (narrow sectoral interests must not prevail) ► A new integrative approach to policy-making ► A responsible partner in a globalized world: “leadership through example”

39 Challenges and implications of SD for public institutions and citizens “Without increasing environmental concerns in the economic sectors and without a stronger participation and commitment of citizens and stakeholders, our development will remain unsustainable” (VI EAP)

40 A number of implications 1) Changes in behaviour 2) Increasing capabilities 3) Information and communication 4) Social participation 5) Conflict management 6) Integration of policies 7) Vertical-horizontal coordination 8) Instruments 9) Cooperation

41 EU Environmental Policy Actors ► CM ► COM ► EP ► ECJ

42 The Council of Ministers ► competitive dynamic: negotiation “pushers-laggards” ► isolation of environmental ministers from domestic pressures, ► policy-transfer (ideas, practices), ► package dealing (compromises, i.e. Cohesion Fund) ► awareness about financial-administrative costs (long deadlines for implementation) ► unawareness (internal pressures, implementation gap) ► short terminisn (governments) vs. strategic non elected thinkers (Commission) ► expectations of poor compliance (member states responsible for enforcement)

43 The Commission ► A creative policy-entrepreneur (only 500 officials) ► Key player at the stage of agenda setting and policy formulation (expertise and consultation networks) ► A segmented player: DG environment, less powerful than Industry or Agriculture. Need for coordination with other DGs concerned. Coordination with EP committees (Environment, Budget, Regional policy) ► Implementation control deficit

44 The European Parliament ► The “greenest” of the 3 main policy-making bodies ► Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Consumer Protection ► Co-decision procedure

45 European Court of Justice ► Pusher of EU environ policy-making ► Before the SEA (AUE) ► Emancipation of the env. Agenda from the market agenda (Danish bottle) ► Ensures compliance with EU law (infringements procedures) ex: fining Greece for uncontrolled waste tipping; Spain for inland bathing waters ► Preliminary ruling (recurso prejudicial)

46 The EU as an international actor ► 1/3 of environmental measures linked to international agreements (air pollution, water, waste, wildlife, climate change, etc.) ► Ambiguity: who negotiates? ► Internal-external negotiation (Kyoto)

47 Cambio climático ► Links ► International bodies:  United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)  OECD Climate Change site OECD Climate Change site OECD Climate Change site ► EU activities:  European Climate Change Programme European Climate Change Programme European Climate Change Programme  DG Environment DG Environment DG Environment  Sixth Framework Programme for Research: Sustainable development, global change and ecosystems Sixth Framework Programme for Research: Sustainable development, global change and ecosystems Sixth Framework Programme for Research: Sustainable development, global change and ecosystems  European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change  European Environment Agency European Environment Agency European Environment Agency ► Specific reports:  EEA Briefing 3/2005 – Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Europe (2005/12/07) EEA Briefing 3/2005 – Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Europe (2005/12/07) EEA Briefing 3/2005 – Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Europe (2005/12/07)  Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe (2005/12/07) Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe (2005/12/07) Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe (2005/12/07)  EEA Briefing 1/2005 – Climate change and river flooding in Europe (2005/04/06) EEA Briefing 1/2005 – Climate change and river flooding in Europe (2005/04/06) EEA Briefing 1/2005 – Climate change and river flooding in Europe (2005/04/06) ► Other information:  Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research  UK Climate Impacts Program UK Climate Impacts Program UK Climate Impacts Program  Potsdam Institute for Climate change research Potsdam Institute for Climate change research Potsdam Institute for Climate change research


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