Presentation on theme: "In 1644, the Manchus, a semi-nomadic people from northeast of the Great Wall, conquered the crumbling Ming state and established their own Qing (or Pure)"— Presentation transcript:
In 1644, the Manchus, a semi-nomadic people from northeast of the Great Wall, conquered the crumbling Ming state and established their own Qing (or Pure) dynasty, which lasted nearly 300 years. During the first half of this period, the Manchus extended their rule over a vast empire that grew to encompass new territories in Central Asia, Tibet, and Siberia. The Manchus also established their hegemony over Chinese cultural traditions as an important means of demonstrating their legitimacy as Confucian-style rulers.Ming state The brilliant reigns of the Kangxi (r. 1662–1722) and Qianlong (r. 1736–95) emperors display a period when the Manchus embraced Chinese cultural traditions and the court became a leading patron in the arts as China enjoyed an extended period of political stability and economic prosperity. Three principal groups of artists were working during the Qing: the traditionalists, who sought to revitalize painting through the creative reinterpretation of past models; the individualists, who practiced a deeply personal form of art that often carried a strong message of political protest; and the courtiers, the officials, and the professional artists who served at the Manchu court.the traditionaliststhe individualiststhe courtiers, the officials, and the professional artists The Qing Dynasty (1644–1911): Painting http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/qing_1/hd_qing_1.htm
Landscape in the Style of Huang Gongwang, 1666 Wang Shimin (Chinese, 1592–1680) Hanging scroll; ink on paper Image: 53 x 22 1/4 in. (134.6 x 56.5 cm) This major work represents the culmination of Wang Shimin's lifelong study of the paintings of Huang Gongwang (1269–1354). Reducing Huang's calligraphic style to a graphic formula—rock forms filled with straight, parallel, "hemp-fiber" texture strokes and layers of horizontal dots—Wang Shimin built his kinetic brush patterns into rising and falling, opening and closing, "breath-force" (qishi) movements. Individual texture strokes and foliage dots crisscross, multiplying and expanding until the entire composition turns into a great flowing pattern of undulating forces and counterforces that suggests nature's boundless energy and growth. Wang Shimin was the eldest of the "Four Wangs"—the others being Wang Jian (1598–1677), Wang Hui (1632–1717), and Wang Yuanqi (1642–1715). They were the leaders of the Orthodox school of painting in the early Qing period.
Wooded Mountains at Dusk, Qing dynasty (1644– 1911), dated 1666 Kuncan (Chinese, 1612–1673) Born on the Buddha's birthday, Kuncan took Buddhist monastic vows at the age of twenty-six and became an ardent follower of Chan (Zen) Buddhism. After the establishment of the Qing dynasty, he lived in Nanjing, where his circle of friends included a number of poet- painters who considered themselves loyal yimin ("leftover subjects") of the vanquished Ming dynasty. In 1659, he visited Mount Huang, the scenic "Yellow Mountain" in southern Anhui Province, and, inspired by the beauty of the site, decided to devote himself entirely to painting. For Kuncan, painting was a path to the self, and he brought to his art the importance of selfhood espoused by later Chan practitioners. Kuncan's landscapes, painted in the densely textured style of the Yuan master Wang Meng (ca. 1308–1385), are often accompanied by inscriptions that describe a physical, as well as spiritual, journey through mountains and over waters.
Wooded Mountains at Dusk, Qing dynasty (1644–1911), dated 1666 Kuncan (Chinese, 1612–1673) A traveler draws the viewer into the landscape.
Landscapes after Ancient Masters, Qing dynasty (1644– 1911), dated 1677 Gao Cen (Chinese, active 1643–after 1682) Album of ten paintings: ink and color on silk Each leaf 8 1/8 x 8 3/8 in. (20.5 x 21.3 cm) Purchase, C. C. Wang Gift, 2007 (2007.50)
Whiling Away the Summer, Qing dynasty (1644–1911), dated 1679 Wu Li (Chinese, 1632–1718) Handscroll; ink on paper 14 5/16 x 106 5/16 in. (36.4 x 270 cm) In his inscription, Wu Li records that he painted this handscroll one clear morning after a rainfall, sitting alone in his studio thinking of an absent friend. There is a dreamlike quality about the painting: birds, trees, bamboo, mist, and even rocks dance joyously around the hermit-scholar, who sits quietly reading in his idyllic domain. Although he was an ardent admirer of Huang Gongwang (1269–1354), Wu transformed the Yuan painter's "hemp-fiber" texture strokes into a distinctly personal style: cool pale ink textures in intricate contrasting patterns, silhouetted and suspended in space, have been applied with both an athlete's vigor and a poet's gentle cadence.
The Palace of Nine Perfections, Qing dynasty (1644–1911), dated 1691 Yuan Jiang (Chinese, active ca. 1690–ca. 1746) Set of 12 hanging scrolls; ink and color on silk H. 81 1/2 in. (207 cm), W. 221 3/4 in. (563.2 cm) Yuan Jiang, a successful professional artist in his native Yangzhou, specialized in intricately described visions of palatial architecture set within sumptuous blue-and-green landscapes. In reviving the monumental landscape style of the Tang and Song dynasties, Yuan also catered to a taste for large-scale hanging scrolls and multipanel screen paintings to decorate the ostentatious mansions of Yangzhou's mercantile elite.
Emperor Guan, Qing dynasty (1644–1911) Unidentified Artist (Chinese, ca. 1700) Hanging scroll; ink, color, and gold on silk 68 1/8 x 36 7/16 in. (173 x 42.6 cm) Guan Yu (died 219 A.D.), a warrior of the late Han dynasty (206 B.C.–220 A.D.) renowned for his valor and faithfulness, was later venerated as a saint in the Daoist pantheon. Elevated to the rank of emperor (di) by the Wanli emperor (r. 1573– 1620) of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), Guandi, as he was thenceforth known, served as a virtual patron saint of the Manchu rulers of the ensuing Qing dynasty, who erected numerous shrines in his honor throughout China. In this image, Emperor Guan is shown descending from the heavens with two attendants. He is identified by an inscription written in gold in the upper right: "Overseer of the Gate, Sage-Emperor Lord Guan."
Emperor Guan, Qing dynasty (1644–1911) Unidentified Artist (Chinese, ca. 1700) Hanging scroll; ink, color, and gold on silk
Wangchuan Villa, Qing dynasty (1644–1911), dated 1711 Wang Yuanqi (Chinese, 1642–1715) Handscroll; ink and color on paper 14 X 214 9/16 in. (35.6 X 545 cm) The elegant Wangchuan Villa situated in the picturesque hills on the outskirts of Chang'an (modern Xi'an), capital of the Tang dynasty (618–907), is one of the most famous gardens of ancient China. The rambling estate with spectacular scenery was the retreat of the poet, musician, and landscape painter Wang Wei (699–759). Almost a thousand years later, Wang Yuanqi used a rubbing of a Wangchuan composition etched into stone in 1617 for the general outlines of his painting and referred to Wang Wei's poems to guide his inspiration. In a colophon appended to the painting, Wang Yuanqi expresses satisfaction that he has captured some of Wang Wei's idea of "painting in poetry and poetry in painting."
Portrait of the Imperial Bodyguard Zhanyinbao, Qing dynasty (1644–1911), dated 1760 Unidentified Artist (Chinese, 18th century) Hanging scroll; ink and color on silk H. 74 1/4 in. (188.6 cm), W. 37 7/16 in. (95.1 cm) Purchase, The Dillon Fund Gift, 1986 (1986.206) Under the Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty, portraiture again became an important court- sponsored art. This full-length depiction of an imperial bodyguard of the first rank is from a set of one hundred portraits of loyal officials and valiant warriors commissioned by the Qianlong emperor (r. 1736–95) that originally hung in the Hall of Imperial Brilliance (Ziguang Ge), the pavilion in the Forbidden City where the emperor received tribute offerings and entertained foreign emissaries. To execute a commemorative painting project of this scope as quickly and efficiently as possible, Academy artists were organized in workshop fashion, with labor divided by specialization. Zhanyinbao's lifelike features were probably based on a sketch made from life by one of the Jesuit artists attached to the court.
The Qianlong Emperor's Southern Inspection Tour, Scroll Six: Entering Suzhou and the Grand Canal, Qing dynasty (1644–1911), dated 1770 Xu Yang (Chinese, active ca. 1750–76) Handscroll; ink and color on silk
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