Presentation on theme: "中文课 九月十九号. Review before the quiz Any last minute questions? Give quiz: 20 minutes to complete. Students come outside individually for the verbal portion."— Presentation transcript:
Review before the quiz Any last minute questions? Give quiz: 20 minutes to complete. Students come outside individually for the verbal portion.
Introduction News report: DaSean Today’s plan: o Review pre-1911 history, complete the Ming and Qing Dynasty material o Radicals on page 17.
Chinese History Pre-1911 The China we think of today did not always exist as one country. The geography has changed significantly over about 5,000 years of history. See this link for the map animation. First major character in history was Confucius, who lived around 550 BC. His teachings became extremely important to Chinese culture and shaped the political and social events. First ruler of a unified China was 秦始皇 (Qín Sh ǐ huáng), who ruled from 259 BC to 210 BC. He’s the one in the picture. Under his rule, China began building the Great Wall. The name Qin is where the word CHINA comes from. There are many dynasties dating back thousands of years. We will only look at the most recent ones, but you may hear about: o Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) o Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) o Wei and Jin Period (265 – 420 AD) o Wu Hu Period (304-439) o Southern and Northern Dynasties (420 – 589) o Sui Dynasty (589 – 618) o Tang Dynasty (618 – 907)
Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty in 1271. At this time, the rule was only in northern China, near Beijing. This was a period of Mongolian rule. In 1276, Kublai Khan led his army to capture southern territories, uniting the whole country. Agricultural economy during this time, a relatively prosperous era due to new farming techniques, new technology, and the creation of paper money. China began trading with foreign countries. This was around the same time Marco Polo travelled to Asia from Europe. In 1367, internal problems amongst the ruling class, natural disasters, and an angry population brought an end to the Yuan Dynasty. A rebel army led to Zhu Yuanzhang ended the Yuan Dynasty.
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) Zhu Yuanzhang made himself emperor and started the Ming Dynasty in 1368 and captured Beijing, expelling all Mongols. Zhu ended a lot of the corruption and problems of previous eras. Punished a lot of the officials and rulers from previous times. The lives of the peasants improved. Chinese influence throughout the world grew, as Emperor Chengzu send a fleet of ships to other Asian countries to explore and trade from 1405 to 1433. Chengzu moved the capital to Beijing from Yingtian in 1421.
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) Economically, feudalism started to end, and capitalism began to emerge. Food output increased. Also, new industries emerged. Porcelain was created on a large scale. New industries in silk, alcohol, tobacco, fruits and vegetables were developed. New cities were formed. Later in the Dynasty, restrictions were made, which made commerce much more difficult. New forms of art and literature were created. New weapons an military technology were made. Architecture was also very important. o Forbidden City Great Wall was further developed. Corruption and natural disasters created big problems at the end of the Ming Dynasty. Dozens of rebel armies attacked Xi’An and Beijing, two important cities. The Ming Dynasty officially ended when Emerpor Weizong hanged himself in Beijing.
Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) Started in 1644 when Li Zicheng led a peasant’s uprising and started a new regime in Beijing. There were new policies to revive the economy and improve the lives of peasants. The country became more politically centralized. The country expanded to new frontiers, including Tibet, Xinjiang, Taiwan, and Mongol regions. Cultural and technological developments continued.
Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) 1841: British officially take control of Hong Kong Under the corrupt rulers of the later part of the Qing Dynasty, rebellions and uprisings took place. The Opium War (1840) and Western influence in Asia weakened the leaders. o In the late 1800’s, the Westernization Movement: An effort to adopt Western culture, technology, and philosophy. o Reform Movement of 1898: A cultural, educational and political reform inteded to modernize the country. o Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864): A civil war in southern China The Revolution of Sun Yat-Sen overthrew the Qing Dynasty, ending the monarchy system and making China a more modern Republic.