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Late Ming and Early Qing Dynasties Introduction about the Manchu and China The Manchu in North China and Fall of the Ming Rise of the Manchu and Rebellion.

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Presentation on theme: "Late Ming and Early Qing Dynasties Introduction about the Manchu and China The Manchu in North China and Fall of the Ming Rise of the Manchu and Rebellion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Late Ming and Early Qing Dynasties Introduction about the Manchu and China The Manchu in North China and Fall of the Ming Rise of the Manchu and Rebellion Establishment of the Qing Dynasty and Manchu Strategy Kangxi (K’ang Hsi) Emperor and Qianlong Emperor Foreign affairs Conclusion

2 Expansion of the Qing Dynasty

3 The Manchu and China Manchu as an ally of the Ming dynasty in face of threats from Japanese pirates and Mongols Manchu used their knowledge of China to help establish new dynasty Created the Qing dynasty 1644 and controlled all of China by 1659

4 Manchu in North China Descendants of the Jurchens in north China in Jin dynasty ( ) Hunters, fishermen and farmers United in early modern period under Nurhaci ( ) Incorporated bilingual individuals in his government

5 Nurhaci ( ), leader of the Jurchen Dynasty (Jin)

6 East Asia c

7 Fall of the Ming Dynasty Peasant rebellions Deflation Flooding in 1642 Smallpox epidemic in 1643 Rebel forces emerged throughout northern China in the 1630s, such as those led by Li Zicheng

8 Peasant Rebel Leader, Li Zicheng ( )

9 Rebellion By 1635 rebel leaders controlled much of north central China April 1644 Li’s armies in Beijing when last Ming emperor hanged himself Response to rebels led by General Wu Sangui Opened gates of Great Wall to let the Manchu into China

10 Shanhai Pass in the Great Wall of China

11 Establishment of the Qing Dynasty Wu and the Manchu occupied Beijing by June 1644 at the expense of the rebels Installation of new emperor in 1644 Pursuit of Ming loyalists Controlled all of China by 1659

12 Manchu Strategy Qing system of government Manchu as ethnically separate group Use of the banner system Creation of system to work with the Chinese, but to maintain Manchu identity, in government, society and military

13 Manchu Banners

14 Kangxi Emperor ( ) Prosperous and vibrant reign Diligent and intelligent leader Gained control of government by 1669 Economic and cultural achievements

15 Qing Emperor Kangxi (r ) at a young age

16 Primary source: “The Sacred Edicts” – What values do these teachings reflect? – What is considered valuable and why? – Do these edicts reinforce the power of the Emperor? Transmission of imperial goals and use of traditional Chinese language and concepts to solidify his position and his dynasty

17 Qing Emperor Kangxi (r )

18 Foreign Affairs Concern about the northern borders Conflict with the Russians on the Amur river in the 1680s The Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689): – Fixed the border between Russia and China – Regulated trade across it until 1850 Qing control of Inner Mongolia by 1691 Expansion into Tibet, Taiwan and central Asia

19 Emperor Kangxi on tour throughout his empire

20 Qianlong Emperor ( ) Emperor of the Middle Kingdom - Accomplishments - Strategies of Rule within China - Interaction with other groups - Economic development - Last great Qing Emperor

21 Qianlong Emperor ( )

22 Lord Macartney ( )

23 Lord Macartney’s Trade Mission In September 1793 Lord Macartney met with the Qianlong Emperor in an effort to open up trading system in China for the benefit of Britain He wanted special trading privileges for Britain The Qianlong Emperor refused to change the established system since it did not benefit China

24 Meeting between Qianlong Emperor and Lord Macartney in 1793

25 International Trade: Cohong system in Canton (Guangzhou): - Limited interaction between Chinese merchants and foreigners - Importance of tea, silk, porcelain - Foreigners subject to Chinese law - Competition for British with Spanish and Portuguese - Massive trade deficit for British merchants

26 View of Canton, ca, (artist unknown)

27 Trade problems and issues Opium: 1810s = 26 million taels of silver going into China 1830s = 34 million taels of silver going out of China Effects of opium addiction in China and role of British in opium trade

28 Silver Currency in China 5 tael silver saddle coin10 tael silver drum coin

29 Conclusion The Ming dynasty fell by 1644 as a result of internal and external problems The Manchu took advantage of Ming weakness and their knowledge of China to create the Qing dynasty ( ) The Qing dynasty experienced tremendous growth and great achievements, especially during the reign of two early emperors, but threats from the west increased instability and weakened China in the nineteenth century


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