Scientific Advancements Skyscrapers Transportation Urban Planning New Technology
Skyscrapers Bessemer steel Invention of elevators Important architects: – Louis Sullivan – Wainwright building (St. Louis) – Daniel Burnham – Flatiron Building, designed Chicago’s waterfront park area
Transportation Electric streetcars – Trolleys – Above or underground “el” in Chicago Subways in New York Richmond – 1 st electric transit system New rail lines – Connect suburbs with downtown areas – Changing dynamic of city life, people moving out of cities and into suburbs
Urban Planning Bridge Building Recreational areas – Central Park in New York Frederick Law Olmstead City Planning – Designed for growth of streets, parks, transportation, etc.
New Technology Printing Press – High literacy rates led to increased reading – Cheap paper from wood pulp – Electric press, both sides of paper, folded – Affordable to average person Airplanes – Wilbur and Orville Wright 1903, Kitty Hawk, N.C., lasted 12 seconds By 1920, transcontinental airmail estab. Planes used by WWI
New Technology cont’d Photography – New film made photography more portable George Eastman – Developed film – Introduced a camera that the public could use – Revolutionized photography for journalism and the average person
Public Education Pre Civil War Era – Most states had public schools – Few attended high school – Many kids didn’t receive formal education Post Civil War Era – 12-16 wks of school per year (ages 8-14) – Harsh punishments – Few African-Americans attended school
Education cont’d. Industrial Era – Further growth of schools – Expansion of coursework to include science and social studies – Kindergarten programs started – Vocational training (gender appropriate) Men = mechanical/women = office & secretarial – Immigrants and African-Americans Immigrants were encouraged to go to school to be Americanized African-Americans weren’t encouraged to go to school, less than 1% went to h.s.
College Increased enrollment – Quadrupled from 1880-1920 – Encouraged research, study of languages, psychology and sociology Founding of African-American colleges – Howard, Atlanta and Fisk Universities founded – Booker T. Washington Thought blacks could get ahead w/ better skills so they were more valuable to society Founded Tuskegee University – W.E.B. Dubois 1 st African-American to graduate from Harvard with a doctorate Niagara Movement: believed blacks should seek a liberal arts degree to become leaders Believed through leadership African-Americans would be accepted in mainstream society
Issues Segregation Separation of certain groups from particular areas and services that are available to others Discrimination Treatment of others as different or less than because of the color of skin or ethnic background
Legal Discrimination Voting Restrictions – Literacy Tests – Poll taxes – Grandfather Clause Helped illiterate whites vote while keeping African- Americans from voting If their father could vote, they could vote This kept African-Americans from voting
Jim Crow Laws Legal segregation Provided white facilities and black facilities
Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896 Supreme Court found segregation was legal Created “separate but equal” Legalized racial segregation for 60 years
Race Relations Racial etiquette – how blacks and whites addressed one another – Never shook hands – Blacks had to yield to whites on sidewalks – Black men had to remove their hat for all whites – Blacks treated as second rate citizens – Failure to follow etiquette rules would result in severe punishment or death (lynching, shot)
Race Relations cont’d. In the North – Segregated neighborhoods – Unions discouraged black membership – Only hired as a last resort – Violence often erupted In the West – Mexicans Worked for less $ Hard work Forced into debt patronage (forced slavery) – Chinese Segregated Whites feared for job competition Chinese Exclusion Act
Mass Culture cont’d. Art galleries – Thomas Eakins (realism) Literature – Mark Twain – portrayed “realistic” life in America Shopping/Advertising – Department stores (Macy’s, Marshall Fields) – Chain stores (Woolworth’s) – Billboards – Catalogs (Sears, Montgomery Wards)