Presentation on theme: "United States History Chapter16 Higher Order Thinking Skills Homework."— Presentation transcript:
United States History Chapter16 Higher Order Thinking Skills Homework
1.Describe the impact of technological advances on turn-of-the-20th Century urban planning. How did engineering innovations help cities grow upward and outward? –New implementation of steel-producing technology led to the emergence of the “Skyscraper” in American architecture. What was urban planning and how did it improve city life? –It was a movement to restore serenity to urban life through recreational urban parks (Central Park, NYC – Frederick Law Olmsted)
2.Summarize turn of the century communication innovations. What effect did advances in paper, printing, and photography have on publishing and journalism? –Inventions like the Web-perfecting Press made newspapers and magazines more affordable. How did airplanes revolutionize communications as well as transportation? –The implementation of airmail made the deliver of mail across the nation much faster.
3.Analyze the expansion of public education at the turn of the 20th Century. What were the main reasons for the expansion and improvement of public education? –The economy of the Industrial Age demanded more advanced technical and managerial skills, which translated to a need to improve American High Schools. What factors contributed to the growth of High Schools? –Needs of American Industry, addition of new vocational courses prepared young males for the workforce. How did educational experiences differ for African Americans and immigrants? –African Americans were mainly excluded from the growth in High School Education in America. –Immigrants were encouraged to attend school as a means to “Americanize” them.
4.Describe the growth of higher education. What changes did many Universities make in their curriculum and why? –Research Schools were formed to help foster continued industrial growth –Professional Schools were formed for lawyers and Doctors How did African Americans work to gain a higher education? –They formed African American Colleges such as Howard, Atlanta, and Fisk Universities.
5.Trace the historical underpinnings of legalized segregation and the African American struggle against racism in the United States. What post-Reconstruction voting restrictions were imposed on African Americans in the South? –Literacy Tests and Poll Taxes What were Jim Crow Laws? –Laws that enforced segregation in Southern States. What was the significance of the Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson? –Established that Segregation was legal on the basis of the “Separate but Equal” Doctrine. –As long as facilities were equal they could be separated between white and black. –The Grim reality was that while facilities were separate they were rarely equal.
6.Summarize turn of the 20th Century race relations in the North and the South. How did African Americans differ in approach to combating racism? –Booker T. Washington – African Americans should pursue vocational education, learn skills, gain economic freedom, political and social freedom would follow. –W.E.B. Du Bois – African Americans should seek higher education and become involved in political activism demanding their rights as citizens (he founded both the Niagara Movement and the NAACP). How were African Americans discriminated against in the North? –Through de facto segregation, segregation through custom. –Segregated housing – ghettos –Discrimination in the workplace –Job Competition
7.Identify discrimination against minorities in the American West. What were the difficulties that Mexican immigrants encountered in the United States? –Work that involved low wages and dangerous working conditions –Many fell into a system of “debt peonage” where individuals were forced into slave labor to pay off debts (also effected many African Americans in the Southwest). Ruled unconstitutional (violation of the 13 th Amendment) in 1911 by the U.S. Supreme Court. How were Chinese immigrants treated? –Job Competition forced Chinese immigrants into segregated communities. –The U.S. Government passed the Chinese Exclusion Act banning the emigration of Chinese workers to the United States.
8.Give examples of turn of the 20th Century leisure activities and popular sports. What leisure activities became popular with Americans at the turn of the 20th Century? –Amusement Parks (Coney Island), Outdoor Activities (Bicycling), and attending spectator sports. What spectator sports did many Americans enjoy? –Baseball –Boxing –College Football
9.Analyze the spread of mass culture in the United States at the turn of the 20th Century. How did the nation’s new newspapers attract readers? –By “sensationalizing” their stories –Joseph Pulitzer based his articles on “sin, sex, and sensation”. What were the new artistic movements in the nation? –The Ashcan School brought realism to painting scenes of urban life What types of literature gained notoriety at the turn of the 20th Century? –Most Americans preferred light fiction, American humorist Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twain) is perhaps the most famous novelist of the time.
10.Describe turn of the 20th Century innovations in marketing and advertising. How did the growth of cities change the way in which goods were sold? –We see the emergence of the Department Store and Chain Store. –Advertising begins to show up in newspapers and magazines pitching products to the American consumer. How did mail-order catalogs and advertising contribute to the growth of mass culture? –Advertising and mail-order catalogs brought the nation together as a people, made the nation more interdependent, and spread a more “American” culture.