Presentation on theme: "Text Complexity and Close Reading"— Presentation transcript:
1Text Complexity and Close Reading Doug FisherContact me atVideos on our FisherandFrey YouTube Channel
2PurposeTo identify the essential components of close reading (RL/RI 1) of complex texts(RL/RI 10) which includes collaborative conversations (S & L 1) and writing from sources (W 1), fostering language development (L 6) and deeper thinking.
310. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
4Assessing Texts Quantitative measures Qualitative values Task and Reader considerations
5Assessing Texts Quantitative measures Qualitative values Task and Reader considerations
6Language Convention and Clarity BackgroundPriorCulturalVocabularyStandard EnglishVariationsRegisterGenreOrganizationNarrationText FeaturesGraphicsDensity and ComplexityFigurative LanguagePurposeLevels of MeaningStructureKnowledge DemandsLanguage Convention and Clarity
7Levels of Meaning and Purpose Density and complexityFigurative languagePurpose
8Levels of Meaning and Purpose Is it about talking animals, or the USSR?Is it entertainment, or political satire?Is it straightforward, or ambiguous?1370LGrades 11-12
9Allegory for tolerance Author’s PurposeAllegory for toleranceMirrored events of early Civil Rights movement (1961)“Now, the Star-Belly Sneetches Had bellies with stars. The Plain-Belly Sneetches Had none upon thars. Those stars weren’t so big.They were really so small You might think such a thing wouldn’t matter at all..”But, because they had stars, all the Star-Belly Sneetches Would brag, ‘We’re the best kind of Sneetch on the beaches.’ With their snoots in the air, they would sniff and they’d snort ‘We’ll have nothing to do with the Plain-Belly sort!’ And whenever they met some, when they were out walking, They’d hike right on past them without even talking.”530LGrades 2-3
10Complex themes Relationship between love and pain Masculinity Loyalty and war730LGrades 2-3
11StructureGenreOrganizationNarrationText features and graphics
12Structure Changes in narration, point of view Changes in font signal narration changesComplex themes560LGrades 2-3
13Structure Stream of consciousness narration Unreliable narrators Nonlinear structureTime shifts written in italics870L (grades 4-5)
14Language ConventionsStandard English and variationsRegister
15Language Conventions Non-standard English usage “Out in the hottest, dustiest part of town is an orphanage run by a female person nasty enough to scare night into day. She goes by the name of Mrs. Sump, though I doubt there ever was a Mr. Sump on accounta she looks like somethin’ the cat drug in and the dog wouldn’t eat.”(Stanley, 1996, p. 2)AD 660L (Adult-directed)
18Cultural Knowledge Demands Buddhist philosophySearch for spiritual enlightenmentEightfold Path to Nirvana1010LGrades 6-8
191. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
20Creating a Close Reading Use a short passageCreating a Close Reading
21Creating a Close Reading Use a short passageRe-readingCreating a Close Reading
22Different Readings Have Different Foci Initial reads of the textWhat does the text say?After at least one readingHow does the text work?Later readings of the text or related textsWhat does the text mean?Shanahan, 2013
23Creating a Close Reading Use a short passageRe-reading“Read with a pencil”Creating a Close Reading
24Underline the major points. Circle keywords or phrases that are confusing or unknown to you.Use a question mark (?) for questions that you have during the reading. Be sure to write your question.Use an exclamation mark (!) for things that surprise you, and briefly note what it was that caught your attention.Draw an arrow (↵) when you make a connection to something inside the text, or to an idea or experience outside the text. Briefly note your connections.Mark EX when the author provides an example.Numerate arguments, important ideas, or key details and write words or phrases that restate them.
25Creating a Close Reading Use a short passageRe-reading“Read with a pencil”Text-dependent questionsCreating a Close Reading
26Types of Text-dependent Questions Opinions, Arguments,Intertextual ConnectionsInferencesAuthor’s PurposeVocab & Text StructureKey DetailsGeneral UnderstandingsWholeAcross textsEntire textSegmentsParagraphSentenceWordPart
27Creating a Close Reading Use a short passageRe-reading“Read with a pencil”Text-dependent questionsGive students the chance to struggle a bitCreating a Close Reading
28General Understandings Overall viewSequence of informationStory arcMain claim and evidenceGist of passage
29General Understandings in Kindergarten Retell the story in order using the words beginning, middle, and end.
30Key Details Search for nuances in meaning Determine importance of ideasFind supporting details that support main ideasAnswers who, what, when, where, why, how much, or how many.
31Key Details in Kindergarten How long did it take to go from a hatched egg to a butterfly?What is one food that gave him a stomachache? What is one food that did not him a stomachache?
32It took more than 3 weeks. He ate for one week, and then “he stayed inside [his cocoon] for more than two weeks.”
33Foods that did not give him a stomachache Foods that gave him a stomachacheApplesPearsPlumsStrawberriesOrangesGreen leafChocolate cakeIce creamPickleSwiss cheeseSalamiLollipopCherry pieSausageCupcakewatermelon
34Vocabulary and Text Structure Bridges literal and inferential meaningsDenotationConnotationShades of meaningFigurative languageHow organization contributes to meaning
35Vocabulary in Kindergarten How does the author help us to understand what cocoon means?
36There is an illustration of the cocoon, and a sentence that reads, “He built a small house, called a cocoon, around himself.”
37Author’s Purpose Genre: Entertain? Explain? Inform? Persuade? Point of view: First-person, third-person limited, omniscient, unreliable narratorCritical Literacy: Whose story is not represented?
38Author’s Purpose in Kindergarten Who tells the story—the narrator or the caterpillar?
39A narrator tells the story, because he uses the words he and his A narrator tells the story, because he uses the words he and his. If it was the caterpillar, he would say I and my.
40InferencesProbe each argument in persuasive text, each idea in informational text, each key detail in literary text, and observe how these build to a whole.
41Inferences in Kindergarten The title of the book is The Very Hungry Caterpillar. How do we know he is hungry?
42The caterpillar ate food every day “but he was still hungry The caterpillar ate food every day “but he was still hungry.” On Saturday he ate so much food he got a stomachache! Then he was “a big, fat caterpillar” so he could build a cocoon and turn into a butterfly.
43Opinions, Arguments, and Intertextual Connections Author’s opinion and reasoning (K-5)ClaimsEvidenceCounterclaimsEthos, Pathos, LogosRhetoricLinks to other texts throughout the grades
44Opinions and Intertextual Connections in Kindergarten NarrativeInformationalIs this a happy story or a sad one? How do you know?How are these two books similar? How are they different?
45Differences Between K-2 and 3-12? In K-2, teacher reads aloud initially, annotates wholly or guides student annotation. Students may or may not eventually read independently, depending on text difficulty (e.g., Wizard of Oz in Kindergarten.)In 3-12, students read independently beginning with first reading, and annotate with increased independence. Readers who cannot initially read independently may be read to, or may encounter the text previously during scaffolded small group reading instruction.