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Text Complexity and Nancy Frey, PhD Text-dependent Questions K-2 ELA.

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Presentation on theme: "Text Complexity and Nancy Frey, PhD Text-dependent Questions K-2 ELA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Text Complexity and Nancy Frey, PhD Text-dependent Questions K-2 ELA

2 If you can read this…

3 Thank a teacher!

4 If you can read this… effectively and write a analytical essay in under 42 minutes, and you meet all the math standards, objectives, and learning targets set forth by the Common Core State Standards, and you walk briskly through life in a healthy body taking 10,000 steps a day, while experiencing social and emotional well being, and you can effectively utilize technology and social media to access and analyze important information, and you play the piano perfectly…

5 If you can read this… effectively and write a analytical essay in under 42 minutes, and you meet all the math standards, objectives, and learning targets set forth by the Common Core State Standards, and you walk briskly through life in a healthy body taking 10,000 steps a day, while experiencing social and emotional well being, and you can effectively utilize technology and social media to access and analyze important information, and you play the piano perfectly… Thank a teacher!

6 Leaders wear many hats.

7 Skilled learners are nurtured.

8 Skilled leaders need to be nurtured, too.

9 Take Six Write as many entries on the ABC chart as possible while the other rolls the die. Switch roles each time you roll 6!

10 Take Six Terms related to the ELA Common Core State Standards (e.g., “text- dependent questions”)

11 Take Six Compare papers with your partner and add terms to your own. How many terms did you collectively gather?

12 10. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

13 “Standard 10 defines a grade-by-grade ‘staircase’ of increasing text complexity that rises from beginning reading to the college and career readiness level.” (CCSS, 2010, p. 80)

14 “Fewer, Clearer, Higher”

15 Key Features of the Standards

16 Text complexity and the growth of comprehension.

17 Key Features of the Standards Text types, responding to reading, and research. Text complexity and the growth of comprehension.

18 Key Features of the Standards Text types, responding to reading, and research. Flexible communication and collaboration. Text complexity and the growth of comprehension.

19 Key Features of the Standards Text types, responding to reading, and research. Flexible communication and collaboration. Text complexity and the growth of comprehension. Academic language, vocabulary, and effective use.

20 Key Features of the Standards Text types, responding to reading, and research. Flexible communication and collaboration. Text complexity and the growth of comprehension. Academic language, vocabulary, and effective use. All must be present for literacy learning.

21 “Read like a detective, write like a reporter.”

22 K-5 Reading Standards

23 Expository

24 Persuasive

25 Expository Persuasive Narrative

26 Students produce as well as read complex texts.

27 Quantitative Measures

28 Use quantitative info to identify grade bands.

29 Qualitative Values Background Prior Cultural Vocabulary Standard English Variations Register Genre Organization Narration Text Features Graphics Density and Complexity Figurative Language Purpose Levels of Meaning Structure Knowledge Demands Language Convention and Clarity

30 Levels of Meaning and Purpose Density and complexity Figurative language Purpose

31 Density and Complexity Gibbons, G. (1996). Recycle! A handbook for kids.New York; Little, Brown.

32 Types of Vocabulary Tier 1/General –Commonplace; learned from interactions with texts and people Tier 2/Specialized –Change meaning with context (“polysemic”) Tier 3/Technical –Specific to the discipline

33 Density and Complexity More and more garbage! Every day people throw more trash away. As the world population increases, more people throw trash away. Garbage trucks come to pick it up, but where does all this trash go? Blue = Tier 1 vocabulary Gibbons, G. (1996). Recycle! A handbook for kids.New York; Little, Brown.

34 Density and Complexity More and more garbage! Every day people throw more trash away. As the world population increases, more people throw trash away. Garbage trucks come to pick it up, but where does all this trash go? Blue = Tier 1 vocabulary Green = Tier 2 vocabulary Gibbons, G. (1996). Recycle! A handbook for kids.New York; Little, Brown.

35 Density and Complexity More and more garbage! Every day people throw more trash away. As the world population increases, more people throw trash away. Garbage trucks come to pick it up, but where does all this trash go? Blue = Tier 1 vocabulary Green = Tier 2 vocabulary Red = Tier 3 vocabulary Gibbons, G. (1996). Recycle! A handbook for kids.New York; Little, Brown.

36 Structure Genre Organization Narration Text features and graphics

37 Structure Changes in narration, point of view Changes in font signal narration changes Complex themes

38 Language Conventions Standard English and variations Register

39 Language Conventions Non-standard English usage “Out in the hottest, dustiest part of town is an orphanage run by a female person nasty enough to scare night into day. She goes by the name of Mrs. Sump, though I doubt there ever was a Mr. Sump on accounta she looks like somethin’ the cat drug in and the dog wouldn’t eat.” (Stanley, 1996, p. 2)

40 Knowledge Demands Background knowledge Prior knowledge Cultural knowledge Vocabulary

41 Knowledge Demands Prior experience (Secondary text on technical directions and related information ) Background knowledge (technical drawings and directions for making a paper airplane, invention process, mythology)

42 Qualitative Values Background Prior Cultural Vocabulary Standard English Variations Register Genre Organization Narration Text Features Graphics Density and Complexity Figurative Language Purpose Levels of Meaning Structure Knowledge Demands Language Convention and Clarity Use qualitative values to identify specific grade levels.

43 Task and Reader

44 Text Quantitative Qualitative Reader Cognitive capabilities Motivation Knowledge Experience Task Teacher-led Peer-led Independent

45 Our goal with complex text is to slow the reader down.

46 Annotation is a note of any form made while reading text. “Reading with a pencil.”

47 People have been annotating texts since there have been texts to annotate.

48 Annotation is not highlighting.

49 Annotation slows down the reader in order to deepen understanding.

50 Annotation occurs with digital and print texts.

51 Annotation in Kindergarten Language experience approach Interactive writing and shared pen activities

52 Kemp, L. M. (1996). One peaceful pond: A counting book. New York: Houghton Mifflin. Modeled Annotation in Kindergarten

53 Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies That Work: Teaching Comprehension for Understanding and Engagement. Portland, ME: Stenhouse. Modeled Annotation in Second

54 Even young students can annotate.

55 Read IRA’s Guidance on Literacy Implementation for CCSS. What are the implications for your school? Are there misconceptions your staff might hold? How will you deepen their understanding of literacy development?

56 Close Reading

57 “X-ray the book”

58 Not every reading is a close one!

59 In the primary grades, close reading is accomplished through interactive read alouds and shared readings.

60 Creating a Close Reading

61 Short passage

62 Creating a Close Reading Short passage Complex text

63 Creating a Close Reading Short passage Complex text Limited frontloading

64 Creating a Close Reading Short passage Complex text Limited frontloading Repeated readings

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67 Creating a Close Reading Short passage Complex text Limited frontloading Repeated readings Text-dependent questions

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69 Questions that can only be answered with evidence from the text Can be literal but can also involve analysis, synthesis, evaluation Focus on word, sentence and paragraph as well as larger ideas, themes or events Focus on difficult portions of text in order to enhance reading proficiency

70 Progression of Text-dependent Questions Opinions, Arguments, Intertextual Connections InferencesAuthor’s PurposeVocab & Text StructureKey DetailsGeneral Understandings Part Sentence Paragraph Entire text Across texts Word Whole Segments

71 General Understandings Overall view Sequence of information Story arc Main claim and evidence Gist of passage

72 General Understandings in Kindergarten Retell the story in order using the words beginning, middle, and end.

73 Key Details Search for nuances in meaning Determine importance of ideas Find supporting details that support main ideas Answers who, what, when, where, why, how much, or how many.

74 Key Details in Kindergarten How long did it take to go from a hatched egg to a butterfly? What is one food that gave him a stomachache? What is one food that did not him a stomachache?

75 It took more than 3 weeks. He ate for one week, and then “he stayed inside [his cocoon] for more than two weeks.”

76 Chocolate cake Ice cream Pickle Swiss cheese Salami Lollipop Cherry pie Sausage Cupcake watermelon Foods that did not give him a stomachache Apples Pears Plums Strawberries Oranges Green leaf Foods that gave him a stomachache

77 Vocabulary and Text Structure Bridges literal and inferential meanings Denotation Connotation Shades of meaning Figurative language How organization contributes to meaning

78 Vocabulary in Kindergarten How does the author help us to understand what cocoon means?

79 There is an illustration of the cocoon, and a sentence that reads, “He built a small house, called a cocoon, around himself.”

80 Genre: Entertain? Explain? Inform? Persuade? Point of view: First-person, third-person limited, omniscient, unreliable narrator Critical Literacy: Whose story is not represented? Author’s Purpose

81 Author’s Purpose in Kindergarten Who tells the story—the narrator or the caterpillar?

82 A narrator tells the story, because he uses the words he and his. If it was the caterpillar, he would say I and my.

83 Inferences Probe each argument in persuasive text, each idea in informational text, each key detail in literary text, and observe how these build to a whole.

84 Inferences in Kindergarten The title of the book is The Very Hungry Caterpillar. How do we know he is hungry?

85 The caterpillar ate food every day “but he was still hungry.” On Saturday he ate so much food he got a stomachache! Then he was “a big, fat caterpillar” so he could build a cocoon and turn into a butterfly.

86 Opinions, Arguments, and Intertextual Connections Author’s opinion and reasoning (K-5) Claims Evidence Counterclaims Ethos, Pathos, Logos Rhetoric Links to other texts throughout the grades

87 Opinions and Intertextual Connections in Kindergarten Narrative Is this a happy story or a sad one? How do you know? Informational How are these two books similar? How are they different?

88 How does purpose and meaningful collaborative work fit into this lesson? Lesson design

89 Don’t over-teach. Students with disabilities and English learners have the right to appropriately struggle!

90 Provide students with copies of text- dependent questions in advance of reading. Pre-teach reading, especially background knowledge and cognates. Provide realia or visual glossaries to support student learning. Highlight contextual clues. Accommodations for Close Reading

91 Develop Text-dependent Questions for Your Reading  Do the questions require the reader to return to the text?  Do the questions require the reader to use evidence to support his or her ideas or claims?  Do the questions move from text-explicit to text-implicit knowledge?  Are there questions that require the reader to analyze, evaluate, and create?

92 293 days until Moving Day

93 Fostering Transition to CCSS How will you shift attention to curriculum, while preserving quality instruction? How will teams make decisions about what to edit, and what to add in curriculum? How will teams learn how to reduce some practices (e.g., pre-reading), and add new practices (e.g., close reading)?

94 Using Foundational Work to Build Upon How will you use this foundational knowledge to build capacity? What resources do you have? What do you need?

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