Presentation on theme: "1.Masters and Johnson hired _______ to be participants in their first observational studies. 2.Based on Eckman’s results, how could you easily make your."— Presentation transcript:
1.Masters and Johnson hired _______ to be participants in their first observational studies. 2.Based on Eckman’s results, how could you easily make your face less recognizable. 3.(T or F) Psychosomatic illnesses are real. 4.Why did Freud agree to present his lectures at Clark? 5.Titchener warned guests that they could attend meetings of the Experimentalists as long as they didn’t bring.
Masters and Johnson Alfred Kinsey ( ) “All he did was ask…” Indiana University –Zoologist and Taxonomist –Assigned to the New Marriage Course at Indiana –No scientific data on sex
The Kinsey Reports Sexual Behavior in Human Male/Female (1948/53) –68% of males and 50% of females had engaged in premarital sex. –37% of males and 13% of females had least one homosexual experience –Most sex happens when people are alone Targeted by the Reece Committee (1953) –Accused of being a communist and trying to corrupt American morals –Funding was discontinued before he could study “perversions.”
Masters and Johnson Human Sexual Response (1966) –The aim was to help those with sexual problems –Direct observation was essential
Before Masters and Johnson Women were not in the “sexual response” dialogue. Popular beliefs –All healthy men could achieve orgasm –Rumor had it that some women could too! Social norms –Couples didn’t talk to each other –Men didn’t discuss problems with other men –Women weren’t supposed to enjoy sex –Parents didn’t talk to sons and daughters
Significant Contributions 1.Stages of the Human Sexual Response –Men and women weren’t identical, but were similar enough to expect equally satisfying sex lives 2.Dispelling the “cold woman” myth 3.Sexual function was not limited by age 4.The results provided data that improved communication among couples as well as researchers
Masters and Johnson Criticisms –Little attention paid to the cognitive elements of attraction, desire, arousal, and intercourse Kaplan (1974) adds desire to the stages of arousal
Ekman and Friesen (1971) Paul Ekman (1934- ) –UCSF –Specialist in Nonverbal communication and emotion –Edited the 1998 version of Darwin’s The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
Ekman and Friesen (1971) Six Universal Expressions –Happiness –Sadness –Anger –Surprise –Disgust –Fear
Conclusions Facial expressions and the ability to recognize them are universal Evolutionary significance for face recognition –Children blind from birth generate recognizable expressions\ Expressions supplement conversation Implications for Autism
Philip Ross (2003) fMRI Brain Scanning - Lies take more work!
Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) Leon Festinger ( ) –Stanford University Why do attitudes Change? –Persuasion –Cognitive dissonance
Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) Attitudes are influenced by behavior! Cognitive dissonance leads to physical stress.