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Chapter Fourteen Sexual Difficulties, Dissatisfaction, Enhancement, and Therapy.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Fourteen Sexual Difficulties, Dissatisfaction, Enhancement, and Therapy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Fourteen Sexual Difficulties, Dissatisfaction, Enhancement, and Therapy

2 Sexual Function Difficulties Sexual desires and activities reflect both emotional well-being and physical health Both men and women commonly report occasional or frequent lack of desire, problems in arousal or orgasm, or painful intercourse There are many ways to enhance sexuality and create greater pleasure and intimacy

3 DSM–IV–TR Sexual dysfunction: a disturbance in sexual desire and in the psychological and physiological changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause distress and interpersonal difficulty Lifelong or acquired Generalized or situational Limitations

4 The International Definitions Committee Women’s Sexual Interest/Desire disorder Subjective Sexual Arousal Disorder Combined Genital and Subjective Arousal Disorder Genital Sexual Arousal Disorder Persistent Sexual Arousal Disorder Women’s Orgasmic Disorder Vaginismus Dyspareunia

5 Sexual Function Difficulties Men and women differ in the types of difficulties they report Men and women have differing experiences as they age Men and women both report fewer difficulties when they are married Heterosexual and homosexual men and women differ in the types of difficulties they report

6 2000 National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles Age Married vs. single Children in the home First sexual experience Communication about sex Health

7 Disorders of Sexual Desire Hypoactive sexual desire or inhibited sexual desire: low or absent sexual desire Inhibited sexual desire and marriage Sexual aversion: aversion to and avoidance of genital contact with a partner

8 Sexual Arousal Disorders Female sexual arousal disorder Male erectile disorder Persistent sexual arousal syndrome

9 Sexual Arousal Disorders What do the characteristics of these disorder say about the nature of arousal? Is arousal a biological or psychological process? What are the implications for treatment?

10 Orgasmic Disorders Female orgasmic disorder Male orgasmic disorder –Inhibited ejaculation –Delayed ejaculation –Premature ejaculation

11 Sexual Pain Disorders Dyspareunia: genital pain associated with intercourse Anodyspareunia: pain occurring during anal intercourse Vaginismus: involuntary spasmodic contractions of the vaginal muscles

12 Other Disorders Peyronie’s disease: development of calcium deposits and fibrous tissue in the penis Priapism: prolonged and painful erection

13 Physical Causes of Sexual Difficulties Men: Diabetes Alcoholism/Drug use Lumbar-disc disease Atherosclerosis Spinal cord injuries Smoking Women: Diabetes Heart disease Hormone deficiencies Neurological disorders Alcoholism/Drug Use Spinal cord injuries

14 Psychological Causes of Sexual Function Difficulties Fatigue and Stress Ineffective sexual behavior Sexual anxieties Excessive need to please a partner Conflict within self Relationship causes

15 Sexual Function Enhancement Improving of the quality of one’s sexual relationship Self-awareness Intensifying erotic pleasure Changing a sexual relationship

16 Treating Sexual Function Difficulties Masters and Johnson: Cognitive- behavioral approach Kaplan: Psychosexual therapy Other non medical approaches –PLISSIT model of therapy –Self-help and group therapy Medical approaches Gay, lesbian, and bisexual sex therapy

17 Summary Sexual function difficulties Physical causes of sexual function difficulties Psychological causes of sexual function difficulties Sexual enhancement Treating sexual function difficulties

18 Summary Many people, and all couples, experience sexual difficulties Sexual enhancement can improve the quality of a sexual relationship Sexual difficulties can be caused by physical or psychological problems Sexual problems can be treated by therapy

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