Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

“Spelling is the foundation of reading and the greatest ornament of writing.” Noah Webster Spelling is an Integral Part of Learning the Language, Not a.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "“Spelling is the foundation of reading and the greatest ornament of writing.” Noah Webster Spelling is an Integral Part of Learning the Language, Not a."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Spelling is the foundation of reading and the greatest ornament of writing.” Noah Webster Spelling is an Integral Part of Learning the Language, Not a Matter of Memorization

2 Spelling instruction underpins reading success by creating an awareness of the sounds that make up words and the letters that spell those sounds. Spelling is an Integral Part of Learning the Language, Not a Matter of Memorization

3 Even though there is a close relationship between reading and spelling, spelling in the elementary grades is usually taught as an isolated, often visual task. Spelling is an Integral Part of Learning the Language, Not a Matter of Memorization

4 One common perception we have encountered is that visual memory, analogous to taking a mental picture of the word is the basis for spelling skill. Spelling is an Integral Part of Learning the Language, Not a Matter of Memorization

5 This is based primarily that in 1926, a study on deaf children spelled relatively well compared with normal children of reading experience. Researchers recommended that spelling instruction emphasize the development of visual memory for whole words. Spelling is an Integral Part of Learning the Language, Not a Matter of Memorization

6 Spelling is a linguistic task that requires knowledge of sounds and letter patterns. Good spellers develop insights into how words are spelled based on sound-letter correspondence, meaningful parts of words, and word origins and history. Spelling is an Integral Part of Learning the Language, Not a Matter of Memorization

7 Explicit instruction in language structure, and especially sound structure, is essential to learning to spell. Spelling is an Integral Part of Learning the Language, Not a Matter of Memorization

8 Given both the widespread belief that English spelling is irregular, it’s no surprise that many teachers teach spelling by writing words on flashcards and exposing students to the words many times. Don't Students Learn to Spell through Flashcards and Writing Words?

9 Studies show that spelling instruction based on the sounds of language produces good results. Don't Students Learn to Spell through Flashcards and Writing Words?

10 Successful spelling programs had one thing in common: they were all based on structured language instruction that explicitly taught principles like sound-letter correspondence. Don't Students Learn to Spell through Flashcards and Writing Words?

11 Researchers found that 2 nd and 3 rd graders improved after structured reading instruction based on the concept that speech sounds are represented by printed words. Don't Students Learn to Spell through Flashcards and Writing Words?

12 Linguistically explicit spelling instruction improves spelling of studied words and novel words. Don't Students Learn to Spell through Flashcards and Writing Words?

13 If English spelling were completely arbitrary, one could argue that visual memorization would be the only option, yet 50 percent of English words are predictable based on sound- letter correspondence that can be taught. Another 34 percent are predictable except for one sound (i.e. knit). Is English Predictable Enough for Explicit Spelling Instruction?

14 Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle, well known linguist said that the English language is “a near optimal system for lexical representation.” For example: They rode along the rode and, when they reached the lake, they rode across it vs. They rode along the road and, when they reached the lake, they rowed across it. Is English Predictable Enough for Explicit Spelling Instruction?

15 1. Word Origin and history 2. Syllable patterns and meaningful parts of words 3. Letter pattern What types of Information Make Spelling Predictable?

16 Word Origins Knowing word origins can be helpful in pronouncing and spelling them. For example, in words of Greek origin, which tend to be long and scientific, the F is reliably spelling ph, as in photosynthesis. Fancy French words us that same CH combination for the SH sound as in champagne. What types of Information Make Spelling Predictable?

17 Anglo-Saxon word origins Typically short, related to daily life, and often have silent letters that were once pronounced. Example: Wrist, wring, and wrench, would be helpful for students to know that these words share the meaning “twist” What types of Information Make Spelling Predictable?

18 Caesarean=Julius Caesar Leotard=Jules Leotard Pasteurize=Louis Pasteur Maverick=Sam Maverick What types of Information Make Spelling Predictable?

19 Syllable Patterns and Meaningful Parts of Words Two common types of syllables, called closed and open that are very helpful in spelling. Closed syllable has one vowel followed by at least one consonant and the vowel is short (cat and ball). Open syllables end in one vowel and the vowel is long (go and he) What types of Information Make Spelling Predictable?

20 If students are taught open and closed syllables they know why rabbit has two b and label only has 1 b. The word rabbit has two syllables, rab and bit. Knowing this makes the spelling of rabbit more concrete and less obscure. Label on the other hand has la bel. The first syllable is open and the second is closed, making the spelling of label more concrete and less obscure for students. What types of Information Make Spelling Predictable?

21 Letter Patterns in Words Knowledge of letter patterns in words provides students with clues for spelling. English has certain constraints on how letters can be used. For example, q is almost always followed by u and then another vowel as in queen and quail. What types of Information Make Spelling Predictable?

22 Letter Patterns in Words Students need not learn all of the possible letter patterns, but they should learn the letter patterns that frequently represent each sound. For example the k sound can be with c or k. What types of Information Make Spelling Predictable?

23 K=activities that heighten students’ awareness of the sound that make up languages 1=Anglo-Saxon words with regular consonant and vowel sound-letter correspondences are introduced. 2=More complex Anglo-Saxon words 3=multi-syllabic words, unstressed vowel, and most common prefixes and suffixes 4=Latin based prefixes, suffixed and root are introduced 5=Greek combining forms are introduced (i.e. photosynthesis, biology etc.) What should be taught in Each Grade?

24 Students should be taught about the lawfulness of spelling, while irregularities are acknowledged. Students can be encouraged to recognize, learn, and use the patterns in English spelling through systematic, explicit instruction and activities. How Should Spelling Be Taught?

25 When testing students’ spelling, it’s important to go beyond simply making words right or wrong. The assessment should be an opportunity to evaluates students’ understanding of sounds and conventional spelling patterns. How Should Spelling Be Assessed?


Download ppt "“Spelling is the foundation of reading and the greatest ornament of writing.” Noah Webster Spelling is an Integral Part of Learning the Language, Not a."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google