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Presentation on theme: "Phonics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phonics

2 What is it?? Phonics is an organized program where letter/sound correspondences are directly taught

3 Phonic Elements 44 sounds in English Language 26 letters
English = very irregular Spanish = very regular

4 Teaching Phonics Instruction should be
systematic (building gradually from basic elements to more complex patterns) Instruction should be explicit (making sure kids understand key points)

5 Systematic and Explicit Phonics Instruction:
Significantly improves Kdg. and 1st grade children’s word recognition and spelling Is effective for children from all social, cultural and economic levels Is particularly beneficial for struggling readers

6 Systematic and Explicit Phonics Instruction:
Is most effective when introduced early Is not an entire reading program for beginning readers Can be used effectively with whole class, small groups or individual students

7 Phonics is Systematic

8 Teaching Sequence Single consonants Short vowels
Begin with letters that are highly regular (eg., f, l. m, n, s, v, z) Don’t add “buh” at end of sound! Short vowels a = apple e = elephant i = incense o = octopus u = umbrella C-V-C words can now be read

9 Sequence (con’t) Blends - 2 consonants blended together ( eg., bl, dr, tr, fl, st, etc.) Long Vowels - easy to learn and reinforce with C-VCe words ( rate, bite, hope, tube, etc.)

10 Sequence ( con’t) Digraphs – 2 letters that make a unique sound (sh, ch, th, ph) Diphthongs – complex sounds formed by shifting form one vowel sound to another ( oi, oy, au, aw) R-controlled vowels- /ar/ /ir/ /or/ /er/ /ur/

11 The Most Useful Phonic Generalizations
Adapted from Clymer, 1996.

12 Pattern Description Examples Two sounds of c The letter c can be pronounced as /k/ or /s/. When c is followed by a, o, or u, it is pronounced /k/ - the hard c sound. When c is followed by e, i, or y, it is pronounced /s/ - the soft c sound. cat cough cut cent city cycle Two sounds of g The sound is associated with the letter g depends on the letter following it. When g is followed by a, o, or u, it is pronounced as /g/ - the hard g sound. When g is followed by e, i, or y, it is usually pronounced /j/ - the soft g sound. Exceptions include get and give. gate go guess gentle giant gypsy CVC pattern When a one-syllable word has only one vowel and the vowel and the vowel comes between two consonants, it is usually short. One exception is told. bat cup land Final e or CVCe pattern When there are two vowels in a one-syllable word and one of them is an e at the end of the word, the first vowel is long and the final e is silent. Three exceptions are have, come, and love. home safe cute

13 Phonic Generalizations (con’t)
CV pattern When a vowel follows a consonant in a one-syllable word, the vowel is long. Exceptions include the, to, and do. go be R-controlled vowels Vowels that are followed by the letter r are overpowered and are neither short nor long. One exception is fire. car for birthday -igh When gh follows i, the i is long and the gh is silent. One exception is neighbor. high night Kn- and wr- In words beginning with kn- and wr-, the first letter is not pronounced. knee write

14 Phonics is Explicit

15 Types of Approaches Synthetic = explicitly converting letters into sounds and then blending them together to form words Analogy= teaching unfamiliar words by recognizing onsets and rimes

16 Onsets and Rimes Onsets- the initial part of a word that precedes the vowel. Rime- the part of the word that rhymes or shares the same letter pattern

17 Onsets and Rimes Builds upon syllable approach to teaching reading in Spanish Stresses pronounceable syllables Word families -an, -at, -ell, -eg, -ill, -ip, -og, -ot,-ub, -ug



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