Presentation on theme: "Oculesics Study of eye communication. How is eye contact used? What’s it mean? to monitor feedback (What do you think?) secure attention w/ larger groups."— Presentation transcript:
Oculesics Study of eye communication
How is eye contact used? What’s it mean? to monitor feedback (What do you think?) secure attention w/ larger groups (like in speeches) regulate or control a conversation (teacher/student) establish relationship (when you like someone you increase eye contact) visual dominance (like animals) shorten distances (brings us closer together)
Eye Avoidance How is eye avoidance used? What does it mean? –to maintain privacy –block stimuli (bad sound/close eyes, other good sense/close eyes to heighten other senses-music) –lack of interest
Pupil Dilation enlarge when interested or emotionally aroused (such as when you like someone or thing)
Belladonna Cent. Italian women put drops of belladonna into eyes to enlarge pupils, thought to be more attractive 1975 study: 2 photos, one large pupils, one small pupils, men asked to describe- women w/ small pupils=cold, hard, selfish; women w/ large pupils=feminine, soft Why do women use so much eyeliner, mascara, etc? To enlarge eyes
Oculesics Practice Eye contact around the room Look at each person for several seconds Scan from one side to the other Raise your hand Staring contest Find a partner & move to see them 1st, you can blink 2nd, you cannot blink
What happens biologically when we speak? Diagram Check if you’re breathing correctly
Paralanguage The way in which you say words; volume, pitch, speaking rate, voice quality
Volume How loudly or softly you are speaking When might you speak loudly? Softly?
Speaking Rate/Pace How fast or slow you are speaking When might you speak fast? slow?
Pitch How high or low the sounds of your voice are When do you speak with a high pitch? Low?
Chart of Feelings Do write this down. FeelingVolumePacePitch AngerLoudFastHigh JoyLoudFastHigh SadnessSoftSlowLow
Voice Quality What makes people able to recognize you by your voice alone Ex: on the phone Who has a distinct voice? Arnold Schwarzenegger? Mr. H? Bush?
Stress Volume & pitch; the amount of emphasis you place on different words in a sentence.
Stress Examples: How does meaning change in the following sentence by stressing different words? I like him very much. Meaning: You like him, not the other person. I like him very much. Meaning: It is that guy you like, not someone else. I like him very much. Meaning: You have very strong feelings.
More Examples: How does meaning change in the following sentence by stressing different words? She’s giving this money to me. Meaning: SHE is the one giving the money, nobody else. She’s giving this money to me. Meaning: She is GIVING, not lending. She’s giving this money to me. Meaning: MONEY is being exchanged, not anything else. She’s giving this money to me. Meaning: I am getting the money, nobody else.
10 Volunteers are needed to number off and remember their number. There will be a series of sentences. The odd numbers will say the sentences as a praise. The even numbers will say the sentences as a criticism. Praise (odd #s) vs. Critisism (even #s)
That looks good on you. #1 say the sentence as a praise. Think about which words you stress for the meaning and if your pitch is high/low. Answer: That looks good (high pitch) on you. #2 say the sentence as a criticism. Answer: That (low) looks good on you.
That was some meal. #3 say the sentence as a praise. Think about which words you stress for the meaning and if your pitch is high/low. Answer: That was some meal (high). #4 say the sentence as a criticism. Answer: That was some meal (low). Or That (low) was some meal.
You’re an expert. #5 say the sentence as a praise. Think about which words you stress for the meaning and if your pitch is high/low. Answer: You’re (high) an expert (high). #6 say the sentence as a criticism. Answer: You’re an expert (low).
You’re so sensitive. #7 say the sentence as a praise. Think about which words you stress for the meaning and if your pitch is high/low. Answer: You’re so sensitive (high). #8 say the sentence as a criticism. Answer: You’re so (low) sensitive.
Are you ready? #9 say the sentence as a praise. Think about which words you stress for the meaning and if your pitch is high/low. Answer: Are you ready (high)? #10 say the sentence as a criticism. Answer: Are you (low) ready (high)?
Proxemics The study of spatial communication
Four Distances depending on the type of encounter and the nature of the relationship RelationshipDistanceTypical Situation
Intimate Distance: 0-18 inches Situations: Giving comfort or aid, whispering, conversing w/ close friends and family, kissing We are easily stimulated in this distance, but often easily uncomfortable. EX: personal space. Who do we let in it?
Personal Distance: 18 inches-4 feet Situations: Talking w/ friends or business associates, instructing in a sport, other students in class We’re mostly in this distance. If you decrease to intimate in this distance people feel uncomfortable, but if you increase your distance people feel rejected.
Social Distance: 4 ft - 12 ft Situations: Discussing impersonal or business matters w/ someone in authority, taking part in a small group discussion
Public Distance: 12 ft - 25 ft Situations: Public speaking, teaching a class, leading a pep rally, fans in the stands at a game, people waiting in a lobby Mostly with strangers we do not want to interact with
Factors Influencing Distance Based on research of Burgoon, Buller, and Woodall (1995)
Age Distance increases with age People maintain closer distances with peers than with persons much older or younger
Personality Introverts and highly anxious people maintain greater distances than do extroverts
Relational Persons more familiar with each other maintain shorter distances Persons maintain shorter distances with those they like The greater the status difference, the greater the difference
Context The more formal the situation, the greater the distance Shorter distances are maintained for cooperative tasks than for competitive tasks The greater the space, the shorter the distance
Gender Women sit and stand closer to each other than do men in same-sex dyads People approach women more closely than they approach men
Conclusions Based on the four types of distances and their examples, what can you conclude about the correlation between the distance people have with you and what that might mean ? The closer the more they like you; the farther away the less personal.
Haptics The study of touch communication
5 reasons we touch:
1. Positive emotions support, appreciation, inclusion, sexual interest, and affection Communicates composure, affection, trust
2. Playfulness Tells the other person not to take them seriously EX: tag, slap on the back
3. Control touch controls another person’s behaviors, attitudes, feelings EX: “move over,” “hurry,” “stay there”
4. Ritualistic greetings and departures EX: shaking hands, kiss, hug, or put arm on shoulder
5. Task-related Touch for a task EX: removing of a hair on other’s shirt, checking fore-head for a fever Customers gave larger tips when lightly touched by waitress (Marsh 1988)