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Enterprise skills session 5. Introduction Intro What’s your T shirt?

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Presentation on theme: "Enterprise skills session 5. Introduction Intro What’s your T shirt?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Enterprise skills session 5

2 Introduction Intro What’s your T shirt?

3 The enterprising person - you You used the internet to do 3 diagnostic tests: (Seligman’s) Learned optimism test (Rotter’s) Locus of control GET test and then used WORDLE to produce a word cloud with words and phrases that were in your mind/thoughts after the above 3 diagnostic tests And a learning log.

4 So let’s look at what the GET test, Locus of Control and Seligman’s model are able to tell us.

5 Seligman Seligman Adversity Belief Consequences Model (using Seligman questionnaire) Learned Helplessness theory of depression (that depression results from our perceived absence of control over the outcome of situations in our lives). His research indicates that we can learn to be more optimistic. His research found that some people have learnt how to behave helplessly. They become passive, affects health, outlook on life. How we perceive or view events in our lives as being controllable by us or not – essentially do we think we are in control of our own lives or not? If we believe we are not in control of our lives then we experience more stress and will be less enterprising.

6 Seligman’s Adversity Belief Consequences Model Used to change our beliefs – positive optimists THREE dimensions 1 temporary versus permanent, 2 pervasiveness or how widespread something is, 3 personalization: internal versus external 1 temporary versus permanent Optimists attribute good events to permanent causes and bad events to temporary causes 2 pervasiveness or how widespread something is Optimists attribute success is due to universal explanations example I'm clever. Optimists attribute unwanted failure to specific explanations for example a person is a harsh marker 3 personalization: internal versus external Optimists externalise things and blame other people when things go wrong, they don't internalize and blame themselves.

7 Seligman Seligman argues that we can learn and adopt a different more optimistic way of dealing with setbacks, we can listen to what our internal dialogue says can argue with it against our self limiting beliefs and doubts. This is known as our explanatory style – the way we explain things to ourselves e.g. mental self talk.

8 Seligman ABCDE model Adversity that is encountered Beliefs what is our belief about this? Consequences (feelings) what are the consequences? Disputation - dispute your beliefs – 4 methods: What is the evidence? What are the alternatives? What are the implications? How useful is this? Energizing

9 Your comments What information about yourself did you find out from doing the on line test ?

10 GET test Developed by Durham University Business School as part of the work of the Enterprise in Education Learning Team. Designed to ‘test’ the individual’s personal tendencies associated with being enterprising. But – is the enterprising person made or born? Nature vs nurture? Don’t worry if you got a lower than average score.

11 GET test can measure Need for achievement Need for autonomy Creative Tendency Moderate/Calculated Risk Taking Drive and Determination

12 Get Test Need for achievement Need for achievement Maximum score – 12 Average score – 9. If you have scored well in this section you have many if not all of the following qualities: Forward looking Self sufficient Optimistic rather than pessimistic Task orientated Results orientated Restless and energetic Self confident Persistent and determined Dedication to completing a task

13 GET test Autonomy &Independence Need for autonomy/independence Maximum score – 6 Average score – 4 The person who scores high in this section: Likes doing unconventional things Prefers working alone Need to do their ‘own thing’ Needs to express what they think Dislikes taking orders Likes to make up their own mind Does not bow to group pressure Is stubborn and determined

14 GET test creative tendency Creative tendency Maximum score – 12 Average score – 8 A high score in this section means that you: Are imaginative and innovative Have a tendency to daydream Are versatile and curious Have lots of ideas Are intuitive and guess well Enjoy new challenges Like novelty and change

15 GET test risk taking Moderate/calculated risk taking Maximum score – 12 Average score – 8 If you have done well in this section, you tend to: Act on incomplete information Judge when incomplete data is sufficient Accurately assess your own capabilities Be neither over nor under-ambitious Evaluate likely benefit against likely costs Set challenging but attainable goals

16 GET test drive & determination Drive and determination Maximum score – 12 Average score – 8 If you have achieved a high score in this section, you tend to: Take advantage of opportunities Discount fate Make your own luck Be self confident Believe in controlling your own destiny Equate results with effort Show considerable determination

17 Your comments What information about yourself did you find out from doing the on line test ?

18 Rotter’s Locus of Control Rotter’s Social Learning theory of personality Locus of Control – our beliefs about what causes(s) good/positive or bad/negative things to happen in our lives. Locus of control refers to the extent to which we believe we can control events which affect us.

19 Rotter’s Locus of Control A high internal locus of control means that we believe that we are in charge of our lives and we assume that what we do has a direct influence on us – and so we behave and act accordingly. A high external locus of control means that we believe that our lives are at the fate of others and how we act and behave does not have much impact.

20 McClelland TAT test Thematic Apperception Test - people shown pictures and asked to describe what they thought was happening in them. Clear differences found in people’s answers. McClelland identified 4 characteristics of people with a strong/high need for achievement. Need for achievement – nAch

21 Your comments What information about yourself did you find out from doing the on line test ?

22 McClelland Need for Achievement 4 characteristics of high achievers: 1.Preference for moderate risk taking 2.Belief that they are personally responsible for performance 3.Need for regular feedback on how well they are doing 4.Innovativeness – they are more innovative

23 McClelland Need for Achievement Extent of achievement motivation varies from individual to individual. McClelland’s research suggests that the need for achievement n-Ach is not hereditary (nature) but results from environmental influences, and that people can be trained or can learn to develop greater motivation to achieve.

24 McClelland Need for Achievement Suggests 4 steps in developing the drive to achieve 1.striving to attain feedback on your performance, reinforcement of success strengthens the desire to succeed 2.developing models of achievement by emulating those who have performed well 3.attempting to modify self image to see your self as needing challenges and success 4.Thinking bout yourself in more positive terms.

25 Exercise – an example of a McClelland TAT test picture – What is happening to the people & what will happen to them in the future?

26 Bandura’s social construct theory Bandura – Self Efficacy Belief that we are capable of performing in a certain manner to attain certain goals. Self Efficacy is the belief that we can do something A high self efficacy is positive, we put in effort for longer, we persist in something, we take on tasks we believe we can do and achieve. Self efficacy is not the same as self esteem, it is task related e.g. I can have a very high self esteem but a low efficacy for something such as DIY or rock climbing.

27 What does all this imply Rotter’s Locus of Control, the GET test, Seligman’s learned helplessness, Mclelland Need for achievement, Hofestede’s modes of culture, Bandura’s social construct theory. That some people ARE more likely to be enterprising than others, BUT that we can change our behaviour and learn how to be more optimistic, positive, enthusiastic and act and behave in a more enterprising way. We can learn to be more enterprising

28 Key question – what are you going to do differently in the future now that you have this information? NLP saying “If you always do what you’ve always done, then you’ll always get what you’ve always got”

29 Short break ?

30 Review of your interview with an entrepreneur Some input from you. What characteristics/values/attitudes did the entrepreneur demonstrate and how did they demonstrate them? How could they tell? What were the symptoms? Anything which you found that which was particularly unusual or surprised you?

31 Making imaginative use of Achievement Motivation Constructs Building on Rotter, Bandura, McClelland, and Seligman EXERCISE Part 1 For each of 4 individuals noted in the handouts a characteristic behaviour pattern is mentioned. The aim is for us to gather explanations as to why they behave in that way. For each description you should spend up to 4 minutes and consider: What kind of individual is this? What he/she wants to do? What the results of his/her behaviour will be?

32 Making imaginative use of Achievement Motivation Constructs Building on Rotter, Bandura, McCllelland, and Seligman EXERCISE Part 2 The general instructions are the same as before But now you have to write as much achievement orientation into the stories as possible. The description of the individual must be saturated with achievement orientation. The story nevertheless has to be integrated and not nonsensical. Up to 10 minutes can be spent on each one.

33 Reflections ?

34 Metaphors exercise An exercise to get you thinking deeply about your own outlook/view/perspective on life or things right now. A metaphor is the expression of an understanding of one concept in terms of another concept, where there is some similarity or correlation between the two. A metaphor is the understanding itself of one concept in terms of another.

35 Example of a metaphor The following sentences illustrate how the metaphorical understanding of anger-as-fire is expressed: Your insincere apology just added fuel to the fire. After the argument, Dave was smouldering for days. That kindled my ire. Boy, am I burned up! Source WhatIsAMetaphor.htm

36 Metaphors Exercise part 1 Part 1 making a statement In pairs or trios each person makes a statement about ‘how they feel life is’. Right now at this moment in time; or alternatively how they feel life is generally. Your statement must be only one sentence. If you think it’s too difficult then just consider a metaphor for one aspect of your life-world view. Write it down. For example you come up with statement “life is a bowl of cherries” or “life is a bed of roses” or “life is full of exciting opportunities”.

37 Metaphors exercise part 2 Part 2 exploring content The other person (or pair) then explore(s) the content (aka the what) of the metaphor and what it represents Do this by asking questions and clarification. If in threes then the 3 rd person observes and takes notes or can also ask questions (decide which in advance).

38 exploring the what – typical questions how many cherries? what type of bowl are they in? how big is the bowl? can you eat them? what colour are they? do they have the stalks on? are the cherries attached to each other? what type of bowl is it? What colour of rose? How do they smell? Are they thorny and spiky or soft? Are they fresh or mouldy Add in questions of your own....

39 Metaphors Exercise part 3 Part 3 exploring why After they have explored the content explore the why. exploring the why – there is only 1 question Why cherries? (Or why specifically cherries or that specific type of rose – depending on how much info has been teased out so far?).

40 Metaphors Exercise part 4 Part 4 changing perceptions(?) You now ask “How could you look at life differently if you use a different metaphor?” How might your new metaphor make you a more enterprising person?

41 Metaphors Exercise part 5 ? How may your metaphor may be changed? “what would happen if you changed ‘cherries’ to ‘apples’ or ‘soup’?” or “what would be the result if you changed the red rose to a giant yellow-orange dahlia?”

42 What metaphors might the most enterprising people have? What are the top entrepreneurs’ metaphors? What is Richard Branson’s perhaps? “Life is a fantastic wonderful exciting opportunity and I am a lucky person” or “life is unfair and I am unlucky”?

43 Metaphors part 6 And finally another exercise Construct a metaphor to describe yourself when you are (working/acting) at your most enterprising/entrepreneurial. What would the symptoms be? Continue with this in your own time as part of the self study. Perhaps use wordle to help? Bring your metaphor with you next week!

44 Reflections

45 Self Study After today review your reflective learning logs and your Skills audits again in the context of the new information you have from today’s session, particularly from the metaphors exercise. Imagine you are someone else, who does not know you other than from reading these. Would they think you were likely to be an enterprising person (or not)? Key question – what are you going to do differently in the future now that you have this information? Learning Log And construct a metaphor describing you when you are working/acting at your most enterprising. Use wordle website to produce a new word cloud

46 Website with resources My The wiki website for the course

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