12More offspring = greater Accuracy of the EPD for the animal Expected Progeny Differencethe difference in performance from the progeny (offspring) of a bull as compared to the progeny of the “average” bull.different (number) value for each breedMore offspring = greater Accuracy of the EPD for the animalTDN =Total Digestible NutrientsA measure of Energy in a feedstuff.Increasing TDN(Energy) = Increase rate of gain
13CAB = DCB = Certified Angus Beef Dark Cutting Beef This program was started in 1978A way to MARKET Angus Beef ProductsSet certain standards to guarantee the consumer a good product.DCB =Dark Cutting BeefThe muscle in the carcass take on a dark “purple-black” colorCaused by STRESS to the animal before slaughter.
14PSE = MGA = Pale, Soft & Excudative (Watery) Melengesterol Acetate Effects PorkThe lean (muscle) appears pale, feels soft and appears wateryCaused by STRESS to the animal before slaughterMGA =Melengesterol AcetateDrug FED to cattle to prevent them from coming into heat
16Colostrum = Weaning = Mother’s first milk High in Antibodies - protect against illness & diseaseRich in NutrientsNewborn MUST receive colostrum in first 24 hoursWeaning =Permanently separating the young from it’s mother
17Frame Score = Condition Score = Cloning = Estimate of size used in cattleCondition Score =Estimated of body fat levelsScore (1 = very thin----9 = very fat, 5,6,7 = ideal)Thin Cows don’t breed back or milk wellFat cows will have calving troubleCloning =Taking the DNA from one animal and implanting it into a stem cell to make an exact genetic copy of the original animal.
18Dystocia = Lactation = Gestation = Embryo Transfer = Difficulty/Trouble giving birthLactation =The time when a female is producing milkGestation =The time when a female is pregnantEmbryo Transfer =Moving a fertilized egg(s) from a donor female to one or more female recipientsWhy do Embryo Transfer? - get more genetic material (offspring) from a really good female, QUICKLY.
19Open = Ultrasound = Artificial Insemination(AI) = Placing semen the the reproductive tract of a female by a technician (human) with a tool.Why do AI? - Spread the genetics of a really good male animal around to a lot of females. Get more offspring QUICKLY.Open =An animal that is not bred (pregnant)Ultrasound =Process used in which sound waves are send into the animals body to take a pictureUltrasound is used to determine pregnancy or carcass traits
20Legumes don’t need nitrogen fertilizer Concentrate =The grain portion of a dietRoughage =The fiber portion of a dietLegume =A plant that takes nitrogen from the air and puts it into the ground.Ex: Alfalfa, Soybeans, CloverLegumes don’t need nitrogen fertilizerBloat =An accumulation of gas in the rumen, causes it to get larger and become uncomfortable to the animal- gas must be relieved or animal will die
21As Fed = Dry Matter = Feeds that contain their normal amount of water Feed after water has been removedAs Fed Dry Matter = taking water out# should get smaller (multiply)Dry matter As Fed = adding water# should get larger (divide)Example: We want to feed 300 lbs. of dry matter from corn to a group of calves. Our High Moisture Corn is 75% Dry Matter. How much corn should we feed?300/.75 = 400 lbs.
22Birth Weight = Weaning Weight = Yearling Weight = Weight on an animal at birthWeaning Weight =Weight of an animal when it is weanedWeight Weight shows how well the calf grew while on it’s mothers milkYearling Weight =Weight of an animal at a year old (market weight)Yearling Weight shows how well the animal grew on it’s ownThese terms are EPD values used when comparing animals in a group or bulls
23Litter Size = 21 day weight = Days to 230 lbs = # of pigs in the litter21 day weight =weight of piglet at 21 days old “weaning”21 day weight shows how well the piglet grew while on it’s mothers milkDays to 230 lbs =How many day it took for the pig to grow to 230 lbs. “growth rate”Few the days the better, more efficient pigCombines the above traits to rank sow on productivitySPI (Sow Productivity Index) =These terms are EPD values used when comparing animals in a group or bulls
24Polled = Dehorn = Castrate = Dock = Flushing = Naturally without horns To remove hornsCastrate =To remove testicles from male animalsDock =To remove the tailFlushing =Giving a female extra feed prior to breeding to increase ovulation rate & pregnancy rate
25Calving = Lambing = Farrowing = Cesarean Section = A cow giving birth A sheep giving birthFarrowing =A pig giving birthWhat is the normal delivery position for a calf, lamb or foal?Front feet first with head between legs.Cesarean Section =Cutting the side of the mother open and removing the baby through the opening during a difficult birth
26Growth Rate & Maturity Who grows the fastest? Who matures the fastest? Bull Steer HeiferBoar Barrow GiltRam Wether EweFastestSlowestWho matures the fastest?SlowestFastest
27Hormones to Know Testosterone = Male hormone Estrogen = Female hormone Responsible for development for male characteristicsProduced by the TesticlesEstrogen =Female hormoneResponsible for causing a female animal to come into “heat”Produced in the ovaryProgesterone =Female hormoneResponsible for maintaining pregnancyProduced in the ovary
28Hormones to Know FSH = Female hormone Oxytocin = (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)Female hormoneStimulates follicle to grow and developProduced by pituitary glandOxytocin =Hormone responsible for starting labor and controlling milk letdown in female animalsAdrenaline =Hormone released when an animal is under stress
30White Muscle Disease = Grass Tetany = Stiff Lamb DiseaseCaused by a lack of VITAMIN E & SELENIUMSolution = feed good commercial mineral to the moma’s AND/OR give an injection at birthGrass Tetany =Caused by a lack of MAGNESIUM in lush foragesSolution = feed a good High Magnesium mineral
31Shipping Fever = Sore Mouth = Respiratory disease caused by a virus and/or bacteriaUsually associated with animals that have been bought at a livestock market and stressed during transportationSolution = vaccinate against shipping fever or treat disease with Sulfur Drugs (AS700)Sore Mouth =Lambs will develop sore on mouth - Caused by a virus - can be passed to humansSolution = vaccinate against disease
32Pneumonia = Urinary Calculi = “Water Belly” Disease of the lung caused by a virus and/or bacteria - inflammation of the lung tissue due to stressSolution = Treat animal with antibiotics. Keep animal warm & dry.Urinary Calculi =“Water Belly”Lambs will develop deposits “stones” in the urinary tract - caused by incorrect Calcium:Phosphorus RatioSolution = Provide plenty of fresh, clean water. Keep Ca:P Ratio at 2 parts calcium to 1 part phosphorus. Treat with Ammonium Chloride
33Mastitis = Enterotoxemia = Pink-Eye = Infection of the mammary gland( udder) - caused by a bacteriaSolution = Treat animal with antibiotic.Enterotoxemia =“Over-Eating Disease”Caused by a toxin - usually in lambs on high grain dietsSolution = Vaccinate with type C & D Tetnus ToxoidDisease of the eye -Caused by dust, seedheads, flies & sunlightPink-Eye =Solution = Treat animals with disease. Keep pastures clipped and areas clean to PREVENT disease.
34Rhinitis = Milk Fever = Swine Respiratory disease - TWISTED SNOUTS Solution = Vaccinate, medicate feed & improve ventilation in barnCaused by a low calcium levels in the blood - usually occurs soon after giving birthMilk Fever =Solution = Treat animal with IV Calcium Solution
35Scours =Diarrhea, DEHYDRATION & weakness. Caused by a bacteria or a virus.Biggest problem is DEHYDRATIONSolution = Give fluids (electrolytes) & treat with antibioticsFoot rot =Caused by a bacteria in the SOIL.Solution = Remove animals from infected area and wet areas. Treat often with disinfectants until gone.Vaccine is available - not that effective
36Pregnancy Toxemia = Founder = Caused by lack of energy & poor nutrition in late pregnancySolution = Have a good feeding program in late pregnancy - feed “some” grain, but prevent overfattening. Treat with IV glucose solutionsFounder =Lameness - caused by feeding too much grain.Front hooves grow longSolution = monitor diet, trim feet
37Brucellosis = (Bang’s Disease) Leptospirosis =Reproductive disease that causes abortions.Solution = Vaccination every yearBrucellosis = (Bang’s Disease)Causes abortionsVA is a Brucellosis FREE stateSolution = Calfhood vaccinationsNo Treatment - must cull (kill) diseased animals
38Coccidiosis Ringworn = Roundworm = Lice = Intestinal disease caused by the coccidia organism. Bloody scours is a sign.CoccidiosisSolution = Prevent it by feeding a coccidiastat medication. Treat using Sulfur drugsRingworn =Parasite of the skinRoundworm =Internal parasiteLice =External parasite
39Animal Health Vaccine = Antibiotic = Probiotic = Deworming = Given to an animal to PREVENT a diseaseAntibiotic =Given to an animal to TREAT a diseaseProbiotic =“Bugs”(yeast, lactobacillus, etc…) given to an animal to improve healthiness if the animal.Deworming =Process of TREATING cattle to remove wormsInsecticide =Process of TREATING cattle to remove parasites like lice
40Withdrawl Period = Cattle Grubs = Insecticide = Time you must wait between giving a vaccine and using the meat or milk for human consumptionCattle Grubs =Larvae of the heel fly.Enter through heel, live in the spineThis is why you should not worm cattle between Nov 15 & Feb 15Insecticide =Process of TREATING cattle to remove parasites like lice
41Why do we need to deworm cattle? Parasites (worms) make cattle unthriftyreduce weight gains, poor hair coats, reduce immunity to diseasesWays to Deworm AnimalsInjection - under the skinDrench - down the throatFeeding - ingest drugPour-on - on the back
42Worm (parasite) Exposure Which type/class of animal is most affected by parasites?Newborn CalfFeeder Steer on PastureFeedlot SteerCow nursing a calf on PastureCattle get worms from eating grass. For the feeder steer on pasture the first exposure is the worst. Cows have had previous exposure so have some immunity.
43Bovatec and Rumensin are examples Implant =Put a slow release hormone pellet in the ear of cattle (Ralgro, Synovex, etc..)Implants increase rate of gain, feed efficiencyand a leaner carcassProduct (not a hormone) added to feed to increase feed efficiency, rate of gain and acts to prevent coccidiosis.Ionophores =Bovatec and Rumensin are examples
44ALWAYS in the neck area, NEVER In the rear end (meat) Types of InjectionsIM = Intramuscular =In the muscleSubQ = Sub-Cutaneous =Under the skinALWAYS in the neck area, NEVER In the rear end (meat)IN = Intranasal =In the nasal passage “nose”IV = Intravenous =In the vein** Fastest way to get medicine into an animal system **
45Needles Guage = Length = Diameter of the needle Bigger the # = smaller the diameterBiggest DiameterSmallest DiameterLength =How long the needle isBigger the # = longer the needleEx: 1/2”, 1” or 1 1/2”
46Sheep Terms Class Grade Wool Traits Staple Length = Fineness = Length of the wool fiberGrade** Biggest Factor affecting VALUE of the woolFineness =Diameter “width”of the wool fiberPlastic Fiber from wool bags is the BIGGEST wool contaminant.Mutton =Meat from sheep over 1 year of agedetermine by lack of “break joint”
47Use teeth to determine sheep’s age Sheep AgeUse teeth to determine sheep’s age2 permanent teeth4 permanent teethNo permanent teeth1 set2 sets6 permanent teeth4 setsMATURE6 permanent teeth3 sets
48Baby Pig Processing 5 things are done to baby pigs at birth: 1. Cut off the needle teeth2. Give iron shot to prevent anemia3. Tail docking4. Castration5. Ear notching“identification”
49Reproduction Heifers should be bred at ? months of age. 15 months or 2/3 of mature weightFree Martin =Heifer born twin to a bull** Usually Infertile/SterileCryptorchid =Male animal with one testicle up in the body cavityStag =Male animal castrated after sexual maturity
50Carcass Terms Yield Grade = Quality Grade = Amount of lean, fat & bonesMeasure the quantity of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts from a carcassEstimated lean meat a carcass will produceCUTABILITYQuality Grade =How good the meat will appear & taste for the consumerPALATABILITY
51Beef Yield Grades Scale of 1 ---------5 (trim) (fat)Beef Yield Grades are determined by 4 Things:1. Amount of fat 10th rib)2. Hot Carcass Weight3. Rib-eye Area4. Amount of KPH Fat (kidney, pelvic & heart fat)
52Prime, Choice, Select, Standard, Commercial, Utility Cutter, Canner Beef Quality GradesPrime, Choice, Select, Standard, Commercial, Utility Cutter, CannerBest WorstBeef Quality Grades are determined by 2 Things:1. Marbiling - Intramuscular fatFlecks of fat within the lean meatEvaluated at the 12th - 13th rib2. Maturity - Age of the animalLook at bone & cartilage
53Pork Yield Grades Scale of 1 --------- 4 (trim) (fat)Pork Yield Grades are determined by 2 Things:1. Back Fat Thickness2. Muscling - amount of lean meat
54Pork Quality Grades Acceptable - gray-pink color & firm, some marbling Unacceptable - dark, soft, wateryQuality of lean is observed at the 10th - 11th ribs
55** Most Important Factor ** Lamb Yield GradesScale of(trim) (fat)Lamb Yield Grades are determined by 3 Things:1. Fat thickness - measured at 12th - 13th rib** Most Important Factor **2. Leg Score - conformation (“meatiness”) of the leg3. KP fat (kidney & pelvic fat)
56Prime, Choice, Good, Utility Lamb Quality GradesPrime, Choice, Good, UtilityLamb Yield Grades are determined by 4 factors:1. Comformation - evaluate overall muscling & thickness2. Maturity - age of carcass - lamb vs. muttonlamb(under 1 year old)- will have a break joint3. Flank Streaking - marbling in the flank muscle4. Flank Firmness - firmness of the meatLamb Carcasses are NOT RIBBED or SPLIT to during slaughter to Quality or Yield Grades
58Average Daily Gain ( pounds gained per day) ADGAverage Daily Gain ( pounds gained per day)Example: In January your steer project weighed 650 lbs. He has been eating 30 lbs/day of grain and hay for 200 days. He now weighs 1250 lbs. What is his ADG.Final Weight - Beginning Weight = Average Daily GainDays of Feed1250 lbs lbs = = 6200 days = = 23.0 lbs/Day - ADG
59The amount of feed lb. of gain Feed EfficiencyThe amount of feed lb. of gainExample: Your steer has put on 90 lbs. in the last 30 days and eaten 450 lbs. of feed. What is his feed efficiency?450 lbs = 90 lbs5.0 lbs / lb of gain
60Feed Conversion (Feed Efficiency) Feed per Lb. of GainYou bought lb. feeder pigs for $60 each. In 100 days they have gained an average 200 lbs each. The group consumed 2000 lbs of feed. What is the groups average feed conversion.400 lbs of feed/pig200 lbs of gain= 2 lbs of feed per lb of gain
61Break-Even CostYou bought lb. feeder steers for $.80/lb each. Upon arrival at your farm you vaccinated and dewormed the calves at a cost of $5.00.head. In 100 days they have gained an average 200 lbs each. The group consumed 6300 lbs of feed at a cost of $170/ton. You are thinking about selling the calves What live price /cwt (hundredweight) would you have to make money on these calves.
62Total Cost = $2560.50 (for all calves) 1. What are your costs?Calves = 500 x .80 = $400 x 5 = $2000 cost of calvesFeed = 6300 lbs/2000 = 3.15 tons x $170/ton = $535.50Medications = $5.00 x 5 = $25.00Total Cost = $ (for all calves)2. What do they calves weigh NOW = 700 lbs (7 cwt)3. Break-even$ / 5 calves = $ cost of each calf$ / 7 cwt (700 lbs) = $73.16 per calf to break-even
63Total Cost /lb of GainYou bought lb. feeder steers for $.80/lb each. Upon arrival at your farm you vaccinated and dewormed the calves at a cost of $5.00.head. In 100 days they have gained an average 200 lbs each. The group consumed 6300 lbs of feed at a cost of $170/ton. You are thinking about selling the calves What live price /cwt (hundredweight) would you have to make money on these calves.
64Total Cost = $2560.50 (for all calves) 1. What are you costs?Calves = 500 x .80 = $400 x 5 = $2000 cost of calvesFeed = 6300 lbs/2000 = 3.15 tons x $170/ton = $535.50Medications = $5.00 x 5 = $25.00Total Cost = $ (for all calves)2. How much did they gain200 lbs each x 5 = 10,000 lbs3. Cost/Lb of Gain10,000 lbs/$ = $3.91/lb.
65Carcass Weight & PriceYou have 5 steers you recently sent to market. Their total live weight was 6500 lbs. Their total carcass weight was 4675 lbs. All the cattle graded choice. You received a check for $ for the group1. What was the average live weight per steer ?6500 lbs / 5 steers = 1300 lbs2. What was the average dressing % for the group?4675 lbs carcass / 6500 lbs live = 71.92%
66Carcass Weight & PriceYou have 5 steers you recently sent to market. Their total live weight was 6500 lbs. Their total carcass weight was 4675 lbs. All the cattle graded choice. You received a check for $ for the group3. What was the average price per head ?$ / 5 steers = $898.034. What was the average carcass price /cwt ?$ / cwt (4675 lbs.) = $96.05/cwt5. What live price per hundredweight would net you the same income?$ / cwt (6500 lbs.) = $69.08/cwt