Presentation on theme: "Stockman’s Practice Info Quiz Info & Questions. Bovine = Male = Bull Female =Cow Young =Calf Young Female =Heifer Castrated Male =Steer Beef."— Presentation transcript:
Stockman’s Practice Info Quiz Info & Questions
Bovine = Male = Bull Female =Cow Young =Calf Young Female =Heifer Castrated Male =Steer Beef
Ovine = Male = Ram Female =Ewe Young =Lamb Young Female =Ewe Castrated Male =Wether Sheep
Porcine = Male = Boar Female =Sow Young =Piglet Young Female =Gilt Castrated Male =Barrow Swine
Body Temperature Horse = Beef =101.5 Sheep =102.3 Swine =102.5 Chicken = Lager Animal = Lower Temp
Gestation = Beef = 287 days (9 1/2 months Sheep =147 days (5 months) Swine =114 days (3 months, 3 weeks, 3 days) Horse =(11 months) days an animal is pregnant
Estrous Cycle= Beef = 21 days Sheep =17 days Swine =21 days Horse =21 days Length from one “heat” to the next
Estrus = Beef = 12 hours Sheep =12 hours Swine =12 hours Horse =3-5 days “Heat” - time when an animal is ready for breeding
Dressing Percent(%)= Swine = 70% Beef =60% Sheep =50% The amount of product you expect to get once an animal is slaughtered
Ideal Slaughter Weight & Age Swine = 240 lbs month Beef =1200 lbs year Sheep =125 lbs months
EPD = Expected Progeny Difference TDN = Total Digestible Nutrients the difference in performance from the progeny (offspring) of a bull as compared to the progeny of the “average” bull. different (number) value for each breed A measure of Energy in a feedstuff. Increasing TDN(Energy) = Increase rate of gain More offspring = greater Accuracy of the EPD for the animal
CAB = Certified Angus Beef DCB = Dark Cutting Beef This program was started in 1978 A way to MARKET Angus Beef Products Set certain standards to guarantee the consumer a good product. The muscle in the carcass take on a dark “purple-black” color Caused by STRESS to the animal before slaughter.
PSE = Pale, Soft & Excudative (Watery) Melengesterol Acetate Effects Pork The lean (muscle) appears pale, feels soft and appears watery Caused by STRESS to the animal before slaughter MGA = Drug FED to cattle to prevent them from coming into heat
Terms to Know
Colostrum = Mother’s first milk Weaning = Permanently separating the young from it’s mother High in Antibodies - protect against illness & disease Rich in Nutrients Newborn MUST receive colostrum in first 24 hours
Frame Score = Estimate of size used in cattle Condition Score = Estimated of body fat levels Score (1 = very thin----9 = very fat, 5,6,7 = ideal) Thin Cows don’t breed back or milk well Fat cows will have calving trouble Cloning = Taking the DNA from one animal and implanting it into a stem cell to make an exact genetic copy of the original animal.
Dystocia = Difficulty/Trouble giving birth Lactation = The time when a female is producing milk Gestation = Moving a fertilized egg(s) from a donor female to one or more female recipients Embryo Transfer = The time when a female is pregnant Why do Embryo Transfer? - get more genetic material (offspring) from a really good female, QUICKLY.
Artificial Insemination(AI) = Placing semen the the reproductive tract of a female by a technician (human) with a tool. An animal that is not bred (pregnant) Open = Why do AI? - Spread the genetics of a really good male animal around to a lot of females. Get more offspring QUICKLY. Ultrasound = Process used in which sound waves are send into the animals body to take a picture Ultrasound is used to determine pregnancy or carcass traits
Concentrate = The grain portion of a diet An accumulation of gas in the rumen, causes it to get larger and become uncomfortable to the animal - gas must be relieved or animal will die Roughage = Bloat = The fiber portion of a diet Legume = A plant that takes nitrogen from the air and puts it into the ground. Ex: Alfalfa, Soybeans, Clover Legumes don’t need nitrogen fertilizer
As Fed = Feeds that contain their normal amount of water Dry Matter = Feed after water has been removed As Fed Dry Matter = taking water out # should get smaller (multiply) Dry matter As Fed = adding water # should get larger (divide) 300/.75 = 400 lbs. Example: We want to feed 300 lbs. of dry matter from corn to a group of calves. Our High Moisture Corn is 75% Dry Matter. How much corn should we feed?
Birth Weight = Weight on an animal at birth Weaning Weight = Weight of an animal when it is weaned Weight Weight shows how well the calf grew while on it’s mothers milk Yearling Weight = Yearling Weight shows how well the animal grew on it’s own Weight of an animal at a year old (market weight) These terms are EPD values used when comparing animals in a group or bulls
Litter Size = # of pigs in the litter 21 day weight = weight of piglet at 21 days old “weaning” 21 day weight shows how well the piglet grew while on it’s mothers milk Days to 230 lbs = Few the days the better, more efficient pig How many day it took for the pig to grow to 230 lbs. “growth rate” These terms are EPD values used when comparing animals in a group or bulls SPI (Sow Productivity Index) = Combines the above traits to rank sow on productivity
Polled = Naturally without horns Dehorn = To remove horns Dock = To remove the tail Castrate = To remove testicles from male animals Flushing = Giving a female extra feed prior to breeding to increase ovulation rate & pregnancy rate
Calving = A cow giving birth Lambing = A sheep giving birth Farrowing = A pig giving birth What is the normal delivery position for a calf, lamb or foal? Front feet first with head between legs. Cesarean Section = Cutting the side of the mother open and removing the baby through the opening during a difficult birth
Growth Rate & Maturity Who grows the fastest? BullSteerHeifer BoarBarrowGilt RamWetherEwe FastestSlowest Who matures the fastest? FastestSlowest
Hormones to Know Testosterone = Male hormone Estrogen =Female hormone Responsible for development for male characteristics Produced by the Testicles Responsible for causing a female animal to come into “heat” Produced in the ovary Progesterone =Female hormone Responsible for maintaining pregnancy Produced in the ovary
Hormones to Know FSH = (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) Female hormone Stimulates follicle to grow and develop Produced by pituitary gland Oxytocin = Hormone responsible for starting labor and controlling milk letdown in female animals Adrenaline = Hormone released when an animal is under stress
White Muscle Disease = Stiff Lamb Disease Caused by a lack of VITAMIN E & SELENIUM Solution = feed good commercial mineral to the moma’s AND/OR give an injection at birth Grass Tetany = Caused by a lack of MAGNESIUM in lush forages Solution = feed a good High Magnesium mineral
Shipping Fever = Respiratory disease caused by a virus and/or bacteria Solution = vaccinate against shipping fever or treat disease with Sulfur Drugs (AS700) Sore Mouth = Lambs will develop sore on mouth - Caused by a virus - can be passed to humans Solution = vaccinate against disease Usually associated with animals that have been bought at a livestock market and stressed during transportation
Pneumonia = Disease of the lung caused by a virus and/or bacteria - inflammation of the lung tissue due to stress Solution = Treat animal with antibiotics. Keep animal warm & dry. Urinary Calculi = “Water Belly” Lambs will develop deposits “stones” in the urinary tract - caused by incorrect Calcium:Phosphorus Ratio Solution = Provide plenty of fresh, clean water. Keep Ca:P Ratio at 2 parts calcium to 1 part phosphorus. Treat with Ammonium Chloride
Mastitis = Infection of the mammary gland( udder) - caused by a bacteria Solution = Treat animal with antibiotic. Enterotoxemia = “Over-Eating Disease” Caused by a toxin - usually in lambs on high grain diets Solution = Vaccinate with type C & D Tetnus Toxoid Pink-Eye = Disease of the eye - Caused by dust, seedheads, flies & sunlight Solution = Treat animals with disease. Keep pastures clipped and areas clean to PREVENT disease.
Rhinitis = Swine Respiratory disease - TWISTED SNOUTS Solution = Vaccinate, medicate feed & improve ventilation in barn Caused by a low calcium levels in the blood - usually occurs soon after giving birth Solution = Treat animal with IV Calcium Solution Milk Fever =
Scours = Diarrhea, DEHYDRATION & weakness. Caused by a bacteria or a virus. Biggest problem is DEHYDRATION Solution = Give fluids (electrolytes) & treat with antibiotics Foot rot = Caused by a bacteria in the SOIL. Solution = Remove animals from infected area and wet areas. Treat often with disinfectants until gone. Vaccine is available - not that effective
Pregnancy Toxemia = Caused by lack of energy & poor nutrition in late pregnancy Solution = Have a good feeding program in late pregnancy - feed “some” grain, but prevent overfattening. Treat with IV glucose solutions Founder = Lameness - caused by feeding too much grain. Front hooves grow long Solution = monitor diet, trim feet
Leptospirosis = Reproductive disease that causes abortions. Solution = Vaccination every year Brucellosis = (Bang’s Disease) Causes abortions VA is a Brucellosis FREE state Solution = Calfhood vaccinations No Treatment - must cull (kill) diseased animals
Coccidiosis Intestinal disease caused by the coccidia organism. Bloody scours is a sign. Solution = Prevent it by feeding a coccidiastat medication. Treat using Sulfur drugs Ringworn = Parasite of the skin Roundworm = Internal parasite Lice = External parasite
Animal Health Vaccine = Given to an animal to PREVENT a disease Antibiotic = Given to an animal to TREAT a disease Probiotic = “Bugs”(yeast, lactobacillus, etc…) given to an animal to improve healthiness if the animal. Deworming = Insecticide = Process of TREATING cattle to remove worms Process of TREATING cattle to remove parasites like lice
Withdrawl Period = Time you must wait between giving a vaccine and using the meat or milk for human consumption Cattle Grubs = Larvae of the heel fly. Enter through heel, live in the spine This is why you should not worm cattle between Nov 15 & Feb 15 Insecticide = Process of TREATING cattle to remove parasites like lice
Ways to Deworm Animals Injection - under the skin Drench - down the throat Feeding - ingest drug Pour-on - on the back Why do we need to deworm cattle? Parasites (worms) make cattle unthrifty reduce weight gains, poor hair coats, reduce immunity to diseases
Worm (parasite) Exposure Which type/class of animal is most affected by parasites? Newborn Calf Feeder Steer on Pasture Feedlot Steer Cow nursing a calf on Pasture Cattle get worms from eating grass. For the feeder steer on pasture the first exposure is the worst. Cows have had previous exposure so have some immunity.
Implant = Put a slow release hormone pellet in the ear of cattle (Ralgro, Synovex, etc..) Implants increase rate of gain, feed efficiency and a leaner carcass Ionophores = Product (not a hormone) added to feed to increase feed efficiency, rate of gain and acts to prevent coccidiosis. Bovatec and Rumensin are examples
Types of Injections IN = Intranasal = In the nasal passage “nose” IV = Intravenous = In the vein ** Fastest way to get medicine into an animal system ** IM = Intramuscular = SubQ = Sub-Cutaneous = In the muscle Under the skin ALWAYS in the neck area, NEVER In the rear end (meat)
Needles Guage = Diameter of the needle Bigger the # = smaller the diameter Length = How long the needle is Bigger the # = longer the needle Ex: 1/2”, 1” or 1 1/2” Biggest DiameterSmallest Diameter
Sheep Terms Staple Length = Length of the wool fiber Class Grade Fineness = Diameter “width”of the wool fiber Wool Traits Mutton = Meat from sheep over 1 year of age determine by lack of “break joint” Plastic Fiber from wool bags is the BIGGEST wool contaminant. ** Biggest Factor affecting VALUE of the wool
Sheep Age Use teeth to determine sheep’s age No permanent teeth 6 permanent teeth 2 permanent teeth 4 permanent teeth 3 sets 2 sets 1 set 6 permanent teeth 4 sets MATURE
Baby Pig Processing 5 things are done to baby pigs at birth: 4. Castration 2. Give iron shot to prevent anemia 3. Tail docking 1. Cut off the needle teeth 5. Ear notching “identification”
Reproduction Heifers should be bred at ? months of age. Cryptorchid = Free Martin =Heifer born twin to a bull ** Usually Infertile/Sterile 15 months or 2/3 of mature weight Male animal with one testicle up in the body cavity Stag =Male animal castrated after sexual maturity
Carcass Terms Yield Grade = Amount of lean, fat & bones Measure the quantity of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts from a carcass Estimated lean meat a carcass will produce Quality Grade = How good the meat will appear & taste for the consumer CUTABILITY PALATABILITY
Beef Yield Grades Scale of (trim) (fat) Beef Yield Grades are determined by 4 Things: 1. Amount of fat 10th rib) 4. Amount of KPH Fat (kidney, pelvic & heart fat) 3. Rib-eye Area 2. Hot Carcass Weight
Beef Quality Grades Prime, Choice, Select, Standard, Commercial, Utility Cutter, Canner Best Worst Beef Quality Grades are determined by 2 Things: 1. Marbiling - Intramuscular fat Flecks of fat within the lean meat Evaluated at the 12th - 13th rib 2. Maturity - Age of the animal Look at bone & cartilage
Pork Yield Grades Scale of (trim) (fat) Pork Yield Grades are determined by 2 Things: 1. Back Fat Thickness 2. Muscling - amount of lean meat
Pork Quality Grades Acceptable - gray-pink color & firm, some marbling OR Unacceptable - dark, soft, watery Quality of lean is observed at the 10th - 11th ribs
Lamb Yield Grades Scale of (trim) (fat) Lamb Yield Grades are determined by 3 Things: 2. Leg Score - conformation (“meatiness”) of the leg 1. Fat thickness - measured at 12th - 13th rib ** Most Important Factor ** 3. KP fat (kidney & pelvic fat)
Lamb Quality Grades 1. Comformation - evaluate overall muscling & thickness Lamb Yield Grades are determined by 4 factors: 2. Maturity - age of carcass - lamb vs. mutton lamb(under 1 year old)- will have a break joint 3. Flank Streaking - marbling in the flank muscle 4. Flank Firmness - firmness of the meat Prime, Choice, Good, Utility Lamb Carcasses are NOT RIBBED or SPLIT to during slaughter to Quality or Yield Grades
Sr. Quiz Problems
ADG Average Daily Gain ( pounds gained per day) Example: In January your steer project weighed 650 lbs. He has been eating 30 lbs/day of grain and hay for 200 days. He now weighs 1250 lbs. What is his ADG. Final Weight - Beginning Weight = Average Daily Gain Days of Feed 1250 lbs lbs = 600 = days = 200 = lbs/Day - ADG
Feed Efficiency The amount of feed lb. of gain Example: Your steer has put on 90 lbs. in the last 30 days and eaten 450 lbs. of feed. What is his feed efficiency? 450 lbs = 90 lbs 5.0 lbs / lb of gain
Feed Conversion (Feed Efficiency) You bought lb. feeder pigs for $60 each. In 100 days they have gained an average 200 lbs each. The group consumed 2000 lbs of feed. What is the groups average feed conversion. Feed per Lb. of Gain = 2 lbs of feed per lb of gain 400 lbs of feed/pig 200 lbs of gain
Break-Even Cost You bought lb. feeder steers for $.80/lb each. Upon arrival at your farm you vaccinated and dewormed the calves at a cost of $5.00.head. In 100 days they have gained an average 200 lbs each. The group consumed 6300 lbs of feed at a cost of $170/ton. You are thinking about selling the calves What live price /cwt (hundredweight) would you have to make money on these calves.
1. What are your costs? Calves = 500 x.80 = $400 x 5 = $2000 cost of calves Feed = 6300 lbs/2000 = 3.15 tons x $170/ton = $ Medications = $5.00 x 5 = $25.00 Total Cost = $ (for all calves) 2. What do they calves weigh NOW = 700 lbs (7 cwt) 3. Break-even $ / 5 calves = $ cost of each calf $ / 7 cwt (700 lbs) = $73.16 per calf to break-even
Total Cost /lb of Gain You bought lb. feeder steers for $.80/lb each. Upon arrival at your farm you vaccinated and dewormed the calves at a cost of $5.00.head. In 100 days they have gained an average 200 lbs each. The group consumed 6300 lbs of feed at a cost of $170/ton. You are thinking about selling the calves What live price /cwt (hundredweight) would you have to make money on these calves.
1. What are you costs? Calves = 500 x.80 = $400 x 5 = $2000 cost of calves Feed = 6300 lbs/2000 = 3.15 tons x $170/ton = $ Medications = $5.00 x 5 = $25.00 Total Cost = $ (for all calves) 2. How much did they gain 200 lbs each x 5 = 10,000 lbs 3. Cost/Lb of Gain 10,000 lbs/$ = $3.91/lb.
Carcass Weight & Price You have 5 steers you recently sent to market. Their total live weight was 6500 lbs. Their total carcass weight was 4675 lbs. All the cattle graded choice. You received a check for $ for the group 1. What was the average live weight per steer ? 6500 lbs / 5 steers = 1300 lbs 2. What was the average dressing % for the group? 4675 lbs carcass / 6500 lbs live = 71.92%
Carcass Weight & Price You have 5 steers you recently sent to market. Their total live weight was 6500 lbs. Their total carcass weight was 4675 lbs. All the cattle graded choice. You received a check for $ for the group 3. What was the average price per head ? $ / 5 steers = $ What was the average carcass price /cwt ? $ / cwt (4675 lbs.) = $96.05/cwt 5. What live price per hundredweight would net you the same income? $ / cwt (6500 lbs.) = $69.08/cwt