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Hemopoietic System Spring 2013. 2 Hemopoietic System Consists of blood Lymphatic tissue Bone marrow Spleen.

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Presentation on theme: "Hemopoietic System Spring 2013. 2 Hemopoietic System Consists of blood Lymphatic tissue Bone marrow Spleen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hemopoietic System Spring 2013

2 2 Hemopoietic System Consists of blood Lymphatic tissue Bone marrow Spleen

3 3 Three Types of Blood Cells Erythrocytes –Red blood cells –Responsible for transferring oxygen and CO2 to & from various organs in the body Leukocytes –White blood cells –Formed within bone marrow –Play an important role in body’s defense system Thrombocytes –Platelets –Necessary for blood to clot properly

4 4 Erythrocytes Very small cells in relation to other blood cells Don’t contain a nucleus –Live approx 120 days Individuals with less than 12g per 100ml of blood have anemia Contain various antigens or lack of which determines blood type

5 5 Blood Types i.This rebuttal has been covered in point number 2 above.

6 6 Agglutination Rejection of cells due to antigens –Can cause immediate shock –Delayed symptoms Blood type “O” –Universal donor (does not have antigens) Blood type “AB” –Universal recipient

7 7 RH factor http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7OWp8d 8WKkg

8 8 Pathologies of RBC’s

9 9 Erythrocytes http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/obje cts/mroradpath_v1/mod11/media/11s03l01 01_p1/11s03l0101_p1.htmlhttp://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/obje cts/mroradpath_v1/mod11/media/11s03l01 01_p1/11s03l0101_p1.html

10 10 Leukocytes May be classified as granular and non-granular –Granular has cytoplasmic granules and irregular nuclei –Non-granular does not contain granules & has a regular nucleus Mainly formed in lymphatic tissue and spleen Able to move out of capillaries and attack foreign substances

11 11 Leukocytes

12 12 Leukocytes http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/obje cts/mroradpath_v1/mod11/media/11s04l01 01_p1/11s04l0101_p1.htmlhttp://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/obje cts/mroradpath_v1/mod11/media/11s04l01 01_p1/11s04l0101_p1.html

13 13 Thrombocytes Necessary for blood to clot and coagulate in seconds Formed in bone marrow Live for 10 days Critical for preventing hemorrhage

14 14 Thrombocytes http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/obje cts/mroradpath_v1/mod11/media/11s05l01 01_p1/11s05l0101_p1.htmlhttp://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/obje cts/mroradpath_v1/mod11/media/11s05l01 01_p1/11s05l0101_p1.html

15 15 Lymphatic System

16 16 Lymphocytes Most radiosensitive blood cells Most important in the development of immunity Derived from lymphatic tissue (T) and bone marrow (B) –Both work together to ingest foreign substances and process the specific foreign antigens –With transplants- these cells along with macrophages see it as a foreign substance Try to destroy the foreign antigens resulting in rejection of graft or organ

17 17 Spleen

18 18 Spleen Largest lymphoid organ Produces lymphocytes and plasma cells Cleanses blood & lymphocytes to fight infectious blood-borne microorganisms –Removes old or defective blood cells

19 19 Anemia Decrease in the amount of oxygen carrying hemoglobin in blood –Results in improper formation of new RBC’s –Increased rate of RBC destruction –Or a loss of RBC as a result of prolonged bleeding Person appears pale Has muscle weakness, fatigue, & SOB

20 20 Types of Anemia Iron Deficiency Hemolytic Megoblastic Aplastic Myelophthisic

21 21 Iron Deficiency Anemia Most common type Results from chronic blood loss –From an ulcer, malignant tumor, or menorrhagia –Inadequate iron intake –Pregnancy Treatment –Dietary change –Ferrous sulfate supplements with vitamin C

22 22 Hemolytic Anemia Shortened life span of the red blood cells with resulting hemolysis and the release of hemoglobin into the plasma 3 hereditary defects –Spherocytosis –Sickle cell anemia –Thalassemia

23 23 Sickle Cell Anemia Hemoglobin molecule is abnormal and RBC’s are crensentic –Tend to rupture X-ray demonstrates biconcave indentations on both the superior & inferior margins –Softened vertebral bodies –Appear like fish vertebrae

24 24 Thalassemia Defect in hemoglobin formation Occurs in persons living near Mediterranean Sea Jaundiced Extensive hyperplasia X-ray demonstrates widening of medullary spaces and thinning of the cortices –Localized radiolucency simulating osteolytic lesions

25 25 Megaloblastic A deficiency of Vitamin B12 and folic acid –Can be from malnutrition, strict vegetarianism & alcoholism –Leads to defective DNA synthesis –Decreased number if RBC’s (normal hemoglobin)

26 26 Aplastic Anemia Failure of bone marrow to function Results in a decrease in RBC’s, leukocytes, and platelets –Cannot fight infection and have a bleeding tendency Causes include exposure to chemical agents, drugs, infections and invasion of bone marrow by cancer

27 27 Myelophthisic Anemia Infiltration of bone marrow by cancer, metastases, and carcinomas Causes cortical thickening and can cause a severe decrease in red and white blood cells and platelets in the bone marrow

28 28 AIDS It is caused by HIV 1 and HIV 2 HIV 1 more virulent –Paralyzes the normal immune mechanisms resulting in severe immunosuppression –In the majority of cases in western hemisphere HIV 2 –Converts viral RNA to a DNA copy –Each time cell divides retroviral DNA is duplicated

29 29 HIV and Tissues One major sign in the presence of unusual opportunistic infections Symptoms include fever, lymphadenopathy, malaise, joint pain w/in 1-4 weeks of infection http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RO8MP 3wMvqg&feature=related

30 30 Encephalitis : AIDS Contrast enhanced lesions Will be shown via CT and MRI

31 31 Kaposi’s Sarcoma Most common malignanancy In AIDS pts Especially in homosexual males Co-infected with herpes Present in 25-30% of AIDS pts

32 32 AIDS X-rays demonstrate hilar Adenopathy Nodular pulmonary Infiltrates Pleural effusion

33 33 Case Study REVIEW Pneumocystitis carinii pneumonia Chest radiograph of patient with dyspnea, hypoxia, and HIV infection. The pattern of diffuse interstitial infiltrates as seen suggests a diagnosis of PCP.

34 Neoplastic Diseases

35 35 Multiple Myeloma X-ray plays an important role as 90% of cases has bone involvement X-ray demonstrates osteoporosis with Discrete punched out osteolytic lesions MRI can be useful in early stage

36 36 Multiple Myeloma Disease of plasma cells that results in cell proliferation Usually confined to bone marrow Forms tumors with weakened bone

37 37 Leukemia Neoplastic disease of leukocytes May lead to anemia, bleeding & infection All forms require destruction of cells through radiation therapy or chemotherapy –Leaves pt severely immunosuppressed –Survival rates depends on complete remission –May bone marrow transplant Radiography plays limited role

38 38 Leukemia Acute Quick onset May have hemorrhage Children primarily –33% of all cancer deaths in children under 15 Without treatment die in 6 months Poor differentiated cells Chronic Slow onset Non specific signs –Fatigue & weakness Over age 60 years Mature differentiated cells

39 39 Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma CT of abdomen & pelvis is used to stage disease Treatment consists of chemo and/or Rad therapy Symptoms vary –Lymphadenopathy and anemia

40 40 Case study: Hodgkin’s Disease CT exams show enlarged retroperitoneal nodes NM and MRI can be useful in staring of this disease as well

41 41 Hodgkin’s Disease Treatment includes RAD therapy And chemotherapy Symptoms include malaise, fever, Anorexia, enlarged lymph nodes

42 42 Infectious Mononucleosis Viral disease Often associated with Epstein Barr syndrome

43 43 Infectious Mononucleosis X-rays can demonstrate this by Demonstrating lymphadenopathy and Splenomegaly Hilar lymph node enlargement bilateral

44 44 Hemophilia

45 45 Hemophilia Inherited anomaly of blood coagulation that only affects males X-ray demonstrates recurrent bleeding in joints –Most commonly knee, elbows and ankles –Soft tissue prominence –Synovial hypertrophy –Causes destruction of bone leading to segments of severe osteoporosis

46 46 Hemophilia

47 47 Imaging Considerations X-ray plays a limited role –Except in cases of multiple myeloma, some types of leukemia and AIDS CT is valuable in determining lymph node involvement of neoplastic disease CT and MRI of brain can assist in diagnosis and treatment of CNS problems associated with HIV MRI useful in diseases of the blood marrow


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