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Circulatory System; Blood Chapter 18, pg 679 Blood clot showing Red blood cells in a fibrin mesh.

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Presentation on theme: "Circulatory System; Blood Chapter 18, pg 679 Blood clot showing Red blood cells in a fibrin mesh."— Presentation transcript:

1 Circulatory System; Blood Chapter 18, pg 679 Blood clot showing Red blood cells in a fibrin mesh


3 The basics, functions and properties People have 4-6 L of blood Two components include –Plasma: clear fluid –Cells & Platelets Erythrocytes (RBCs) Leukocytes (WBCs) Centrifuging blood separates the two parts –RBCs make up ~ 45% of volume, a number called the hematocrit –RBCs make blood 4xs as viscous as water

4 Blood Components This test tube shows the components of blood in their relative ratios. It shows a hematocrit of 45. The RBC layer together with the "buffy coat" layer make up 45% of the total volume of centrifuged blood (4.5 m. out of 10 ml). hematocrit of a normal adult male : 47 adult female: 42

5 Plasma Serum: Like plasma but, without clotting proteins Proteins of Plasma –Albumins: smallest & most abundant Regulates osmotic pressure –Globulins: alpha, beta, and gamma make up antibodies –Fibrogen: allows clotting Nitrogenous wastes in plasma (urea) are excreted in the kidneys

6 Erythrocytes (RBCs) O 2 & CO 2 carrier Determine bloodtype Need to be resilient to get through capillaries Hemoglobins make up 33% of the cytoplasm Nucleus is lost during cell formation

7 Qualities of Erythrocytes RBC count (Hematocrit) tells how much O 2 blood carries Why women have lower hematocrits –Androgens stimulate RBC production –Menstrual loss –Inverse proportion to body fat –Males also clot faster. –What evolutionary significance might this have?

8 Erythrocyte Disorders Polycythemia: Excess RBC Anemia: RBC Shortage Sickle Cell: ~1.3 % of African Americans –Symptoms: aches in joints from clogged capillaries, some associated symptoms can be fatal

9 Blood Types Antigens on RBC surface allow antibodies to recognize what is and what is not us ABO blood group is a multiple allele explanation of blood types

10 The ABO Blood grizzoup Type OType AType BType AB Genotypes IiI A I A, I A iI B I B, I B iI A I B RBC Antigen NoneABA, B Plasma Antibody Anti-A, Anti-B Anti-BAnti-ANone Compatable Donors OO,AO,BO,A,B, AB

11 Blood Compatibility Agglutination happens when antibodies attack foreign RBCs AB is called the universal recipient because it has no RBC antibodies –But the donors Antibodies can attack the recipients –Also one of the rarer blood types O is the universal donor

12 Rh Groups Named for Rhesus Monkey 3 genes, C, D, and E, each with two alleles DD, or Dd have D antigens on RBCs, –Classified as Rh + –Rh - lack D antigens Combined with ABO group to get Blood types like A positive or B negative

13 Rh Transfusion problems If Rh - person recieves Rh + blood –First one is okay, the body hasn’t made any Anti-D antibodies –Second one can cause problems With fetuses with different Rh groups –The pregnancy is fine as long as there is no tearing of the placenta –Then the baby might be born with Hemolytic disease of the new born (HDN), a type of anemia

14 Other Blood groups ~100 others, and ~500 antigens –MN, Duffy, Kell, Kidd, and Lewis groups Rarely cause transfusion problems Useful in paternity cases

15 Leukocytes White blood cells Have nuclei –Different types are noted by shape of nucleus –Grainy appearance when stained

16 WBCs Neutrophils Make up the largest % of WBCs Releases antimicrobial chemicals A high count is a sign of bacterial infection Lymphocytes About 1/3 of WBCs Fights foreign bodies Secretes antibodies

17 Leukemia Leukemia is cancer of the blood cells. body produces large numbers of abnormal WBCs Symptoms –Fever, chills and other flu-like symptoms –Weakness and fatigue –Loss of appetite and/or weight –Swollen or tender lymph nodes, liver or spleen –Easy bleeding or bruising –Tiny red spots (called petechiae) under the skin –Swollen or bleeding gums –Sweating, especially at night –Bone or joint pain Treatments –Chemotherapy –Radiation therapy –Antibody therapy –Bone Marrow Transplants Also a feline variant

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