Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Chapter 7 Blood and Blood-Forming Organs Diseases and Disorders.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Chapter 7 Blood and Blood-Forming Organs Diseases and Disorders."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Chapter 7 Blood and Blood-Forming Organs Diseases and Disorders

2 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Anatomy and Physiology Hematologic system Major functions of blood: – Transport nutrients to cells – Aid removal of wastes Average adult has 5 to 6 liters of circulating blood

3 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Blood Components

4 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Anatomy and Physiology Erythrocytes – Normal count: 4.2 to 6.3 million – Life span: 120 days – Form in bone marrow and do not reproduce

5 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Anatomy and Physiology Hemoglobin important in oxygen transport Normal hemoglobin: – Male 13.5 to 18 hemoglobin in grams (g)/100 milliliters (ml) – Female 12 to 16 g/100 ml

6 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Anatomy and Physiology Leukocytes protect individual from infection – Normal count: 4,500 to 11,000 mm 3 Platelets – Also known as thrombocytes – Important in blood clotting – Normal count: 150,000 to 350,000 mm 3 Note: normal values may vary some from different laboratories or sources

7 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Anatomy and Physiology Blood-forming organs: – Lymph nodes – Bone marrow – Spleen – Liver Lymph system protects against pathogens

8 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Anatomy and Physiology Bone marrow – Major blood cell producer Spleen produces lymphocytes, plasma cells, and antibodies – Filters microorganisms from blood Liver produces prothrombin and fibrinogen for blood clotting

9 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Common Signs and Symptoms Erythrocytopenia – Decrease in RBCs leading to anemia – Symptoms: Fatigue Headache Low RBCs Pallor Shortness of breath

10 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Common Signs and Symptoms Erythrocytosis – Increased RBCs – Symptoms: High RBCs Reddened skin tones Bloodshot eyes Increased blood volume and pressure Increased blood volume of heart

11 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Common Signs and Symptoms Leukocytopenia – Decreased white blood cells – Weakens immune system Leukocytosis – Increased white blood cells – Normal response to acute infections

12 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Common Signs and Symptoms Thrombocytopenia – Decreased platelet count leading to coagulation problem – Symptoms: Petechiae – Small hemorrhages in skin Ecchymoses – Large areas of bruising or hemorrhage Epistaxis, also called a nosebleed Bleeding in mouth, gums, and mucous membranes

13 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Common Signs and Symptoms Thrombocytosis – Increase in platelets – Uncommon – Usually no serious side effects

14 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Diagnostic Tests Complete blood count with differential and indices Biopsy of blood-forming organs Hematocrit (Hct) reflects amount of red cell mass as proportion of whole blood Hemoglobin (Hgb) reflects blood’s oxygen- carrying potential

15 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Diagnostic Tests Bleeding time determines platelet disorders – E.g., hemophilia, thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation Prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and international normalized ratio (INR) measure blood’s ability to clot

16 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Diagnostic Tests Biopsy – Bone marrow – Lymph node

17 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Red Blood Cells Anemia – Decrease in oxygen-carrying ability of RBC – Symptoms: Pallor Fatigue Shortness of breath Tachycardia Headache Irritability Syncope

18 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Red Blood Cells Iron deficiency anemia – Loss of iron or inadequate intake of iron – Causes: Blood loss Low dietary intake – Treatment: Increase dietary intake of iron

19 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Red Blood Cells Folic acid deficiency anemia – Folic acid needed for maturation of RBCs – Causes: Poor diet Overcooking of vegetables Overconsumption of alcohol – Treatment: Increase folic acid intake by eating green and yellow vegetables

20 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Red Blood Cells Pernicious anemia – Lack of intrinsic factor leading to inadequate absorption of vitamin B 12 – Treatment: Monthly injections of vitamin B 12 for life

21 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Red Blood Cells Hemolytic anemia – Destruction of RBCs related to antibody–antigen reaction – Disorder of immune system leading to destruction of erythrocytes – Treatment: Exchange transfusion and/or splenectomy

22 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Red Blood Cells Sickle cell anemia – Hereditary – Found in African American race – Abnormal sickle shape of erythrocyte Does not allow cell to travel smoothly through vessels – Symptomatic treatment – No cure

23 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Red Blood Cells Hemorrhagic anemia – Loss of whole blood – Also called blood loss anemia – Complication is hypovolemic shock – Symptoms include: Dizziness, fainting, thirst – Treatment Stop bleeding Oxygen Restore blood volume

24 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Red Blood Cells Aplastic anemia – Failure of bone marrow to produce blood components – Causes: Chemotherapy Radiation Viruses Toxins – Treatment: Avoid causative agent Bone marrow transplantation Transfusions

25 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Red Blood Cells Polycythemia – Too many blood cells – Symptoms: Enlarged spleen Reddened mucous membranes Bloodshot eyes Deep red color on palms – Treatment: Donate blood at regular intervals to reduce blood volume

26 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of White Blood Cells Mononucleosis – Caused by virus – Symptoms: Fatigue Sore throat Swollen glands

27 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of White Blood Cells Leukemia – Malignant neoplasm of blood-forming organs – Abnormal production of immature leukocytes – May be acute or chronic – Acute forms affect children, progress rapidly, and may be fatal

28 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of White Blood Cells Leukemia – Chronic forms affect older adults, are often asymptomatic, and may not be fatal – Classified as: Myelogenous – Affecting bone marrow Lymphocytic – Affecting lymph nodes

29 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of White Blood Cells Leukemia – Symptoms: Fatigue Headache Sore throat Dyspnea Bleeding of mucous membranes of mouth and gastrointestinal (GI) system Bone and joint pain Enlargement of lymph nodes, liver, and spleen Infections common

30 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of White Blood Cells Leukemia – Diagnosis by bone marrow biopsy – Treatment: Aggressive chemotherapy Once in remission, bone marrow transplant to replace neoplastic tissue with normal tissue Remission at 50%

31 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of White Blood Cells Hodgkin’s disease – Most common lymphoma – Symptoms: Painless enlargement of lymph nodes in neck Weight loss Fever – Primarily affects young adults Average age of 35

32 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of White Blood Cells Hodgkin’s disease – Cause thought to be viral – Diagnosis by presence of Reed–Sternberg cell in lymphatic tissue – Treatment: Radiation Chemotherapy – If in remission for 5 years or more, complete cure possible

33 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of White Blood Cells Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) – Lymphomas lacking Reed–Sternberg cell – Symptoms: Painless enlargement of lymph nodes of neck, axilla, and inguinal areas Fever Night sweats Weight loss

34 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of White Blood Cells Multiple myeloma – Malignant neoplasm of plasma cells or B-lymphocytes – Increases with age Peaks in 70s – Plasma cells multiply abnormally in bone marrow

35 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of White Blood Cells Multiple myeloma – Diagnosis by honeycombed bone pattern, hypercalcemia, Bence Jones protein found in blood and urine, and bone marrow biopsy – Treatment: Chemotherapy Radiation Not effective – Poor prognosis

36 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Platelets Hemophilia – X-linked hereditary bleeding disorder – Several types Type A – Most common – Male children from asymptomatic mothers – Lack protein necessary for clot formation

37 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Platelets Hemophilia – Symptoms: Epistaxis Bruising Prolonged bleeding – Diagnosis by blood test

38 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Platelets Hemophilia – Treatment: Prevention of injury Treat symptoms Blood transfusions Concentrated form of clotting protein – No cure

39 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Platelets Thrombocytopenia – Also known as thrombocytopenia purpura – Decrease in platelets leading to inability to normally clot blood – Symptoms: Abnormal bleeding in skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs Petechiae

40 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Platelets Thrombocytopenia – Symptoms: Ecchymoses GI hemorrhages Epistaxis Hematuria

41 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Platelets Thrombocytopenia – Diagnosis by platelet count and bleeding time – Treatment: Avoid tissue trauma to reduce bleeding Vitamin K Transfusions of platelets Splenectomy

42 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Platelets Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) – Abnormal clotting followed by abnormal bleeding – Usually follows major trauma E.g., complicated childbirth, surgery, tissue destruction, septicemia, snakebite, shock – Multiple clots in capillaries – Life-threatening

43 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Disorders of Platelets DIC – Symptoms: Petechiae Ecchymosis Hematoma Hematuria GI bleeding Hematemesis Blood in stool – Treatment: Heparin or infusion of platelets

44 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Rare Diseases Thalassemia Primarily affects people of Mediterranean descent Fragile, thin RBCs form defective hemoglobin Von Willebrand’s disease Hereditary, congenital Deficiency in clotting factor and platelet function Lymphosarcoma A type of lymphoma Symptoms similar to Hodgkin’s disease

45 Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Effects of Aging Age-related changes in other systems (e.g., immune, digestive) leave older adults more susceptible to infections and nutritionally related blood disorders Decreased iron Most common disorder is anemia Poor nutrition


Download ppt "Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning ®. Chapter 7 Blood and Blood-Forming Organs Diseases and Disorders."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google