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Blood and Blood-Forming Organs Diseases and Disorders

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Presentation on theme: "Blood and Blood-Forming Organs Diseases and Disorders"— Presentation transcript:

1 Blood and Blood-Forming Organs Diseases and Disorders
Chapter 7 Blood and Blood-Forming Organs Diseases and Disorders 1

2 Anatomy and Physiology
Hematologic system Major functions of blood: Transport nutrients to cells Aid removal of wastes Average adult has 5 to 6 liters of circulating blood 2

3 Blood Components 3

4 Anatomy and Physiology
Erythrocytes Normal count: 4.2 to 6.3 million Life span: 120 days Form in bone marrow and do not reproduce 4

5 Anatomy and Physiology
Hemoglobin important in oxygen transport Normal hemoglobin: Male 13.5 to 18 hemoglobin in grams (g)/100 milliliters (ml) Female 12 to 16 g/100 ml 5

6 Anatomy and Physiology
Leukocytes protect individual from infection Normal count: 4,500 to 11,000 mm3 Platelets Also known as thrombocytes Important in blood clotting 150,000 to 350,000 mm3 Note: normal values may vary some from different laboratories or sources 6

7 Anatomy and Physiology
Blood-forming organs: Lymph nodes Bone marrow Spleen Liver Lymph system protects against pathogens 7

8 Anatomy and Physiology
Bone marrow Major blood cell producer Spleen produces lymphocytes, plasma cells, and antibodies Filters microorganisms from blood Liver produces prothrombin and fibrinogen for blood clotting 8

9 Common Signs and Symptoms
Erythrocytopenia Decrease in RBCs leading to anemia Symptoms: Fatigue Headache Low RBCs Pallor Shortness of breath 9

10 Common Signs and Symptoms
Erythrocytosis Increased RBCs Symptoms: High RBCs Reddened skin tones Bloodshot eyes Increased blood volume and pressure Increased blood volume of heart 10

11 Common Signs and Symptoms
Leukocytopenia Decreased white blood cells Weakens immune system Leukocytosis Increased white blood cells Normal response to acute infections 11

12 Common Signs and Symptoms
Thrombocytopenia Decreased platelet count leading to coagulation problem Symptoms: Petechiae Small hemorrhages in skin Ecchymoses Large areas of bruising or hemorrhage Epistaxis, also called a nosebleed Bleeding in mouth, gums, and mucous membranes 12

13 Common Signs and Symptoms
Thrombocytosis Increase in platelets Uncommon Usually no serious side effects 13

14 Diagnostic Tests Complete blood count with differential and indices
Biopsy of blood-forming organs Hematocrit (Hct) reflects amount of red cell mass as proportion of whole blood Hemoglobin (Hgb) reflects blood’s oxygen-carrying potential 14

15 Diagnostic Tests Bleeding time determines platelet disorders
E.g., hemophilia, thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation Prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and international normalized ratio (INR) measure blood’s ability to clot 15

16 Diagnostic Tests Biopsy Bone marrow Lymph node 16

17 Disorders of Red Blood Cells
Anemia Decrease in oxygen-carrying ability of RBC Symptoms: Pallor Fatigue Shortness of breath Tachycardia Headache Irritability Syncope 17

18 Disorders of Red Blood Cells
Iron deficiency anemia Loss of iron or inadequate intake of iron Causes: Blood loss Low dietary intake Treatment: Increase dietary intake of iron 18

19 Disorders of Red Blood Cells
Folic acid deficiency anemia Folic acid needed for maturation of RBCs Causes: Poor diet Overcooking of vegetables Overconsumption of alcohol Treatment: Increase folic acid intake by eating green and yellow vegetables 19

20 Disorders of Red Blood Cells
Pernicious anemia Lack of intrinsic factor leading to inadequate absorption of vitamin B12 Treatment: Monthly injections of vitamin B12 for life 20

21 Disorders of Red Blood Cells
Hemolytic anemia Destruction of RBCs related to antibody–antigen reaction Disorder of immune system leading to destruction of erythrocytes Treatment: Exchange transfusion and/or splenectomy 21

22 Disorders of Red Blood Cells
Sickle cell anemia Hereditary Found in African American race Abnormal sickle shape of erythrocyte Does not allow cell to travel smoothly through vessels Symptomatic treatment No cure 22

23 Disorders of Red Blood Cells
Hemorrhagic anemia Loss of whole blood Also called blood loss anemia Complication is hypovolemic shock Symptoms include: Dizziness, fainting, thirst Treatment Stop bleeding Oxygen Restore blood volume 23

24 Disorders of Red Blood Cells
Aplastic anemia Failure of bone marrow to produce blood components Causes: Chemotherapy Radiation Viruses Toxins Treatment: Avoid causative agent Bone marrow transplantation Transfusions 24

25 Disorders of Red Blood Cells
Polycythemia Too many blood cells Symptoms: Enlarged spleen Reddened mucous membranes Bloodshot eyes Deep red color on palms Treatment: Donate blood at regular intervals to reduce blood volume 25

26 Disorders of White Blood Cells
Mononucleosis Caused by virus Symptoms: Fatigue Sore throat Swollen glands 26

27 Disorders of White Blood Cells
Leukemia Malignant neoplasm of blood-forming organs Abnormal production of immature leukocytes May be acute or chronic Acute forms affect children, progress rapidly, and may be fatal 27

28 Disorders of White Blood Cells
Leukemia Chronic forms affect older adults, are often asymptomatic, and may not be fatal Classified as: Myelogenous Affecting bone marrow Lymphocytic Affecting lymph nodes 28

29 Disorders of White Blood Cells
Leukemia Symptoms: Fatigue Headache Sore throat Dyspnea Bleeding of mucous membranes of mouth and gastrointestinal (GI) system Bone and joint pain Enlargement of lymph nodes, liver, and spleen Infections common 29

30 Disorders of White Blood Cells
Leukemia Diagnosis by bone marrow biopsy Treatment: Aggressive chemotherapy Once in remission, bone marrow transplant to replace neoplastic tissue with normal tissue Remission at 50% 30

31 Disorders of White Blood Cells
Hodgkin’s disease Most common lymphoma Symptoms: Painless enlargement of lymph nodes in neck Weight loss Fever Primarily affects young adults Average age of 35 31

32 Disorders of White Blood Cells
Hodgkin’s disease Cause thought to be viral Diagnosis by presence of Reed–Sternberg cell in lymphatic tissue Treatment: Radiation Chemotherapy If in remission for 5 years or more, complete cure possible 32

33 Disorders of White Blood Cells
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) Lymphomas lacking Reed–Sternberg cell Symptoms: Painless enlargement of lymph nodes of neck, axilla, and inguinal areas Fever Night sweats Weight loss 33

34 Disorders of White Blood Cells
Multiple myeloma Malignant neoplasm of plasma cells or B-lymphocytes Increases with age Peaks in 70s Plasma cells multiply abnormally in bone marrow 34

35 Disorders of White Blood Cells
Multiple myeloma Diagnosis by honeycombed bone pattern, hypercalcemia, Bence Jones protein found in blood and urine, and bone marrow biopsy Treatment: Chemotherapy Radiation Not effective Poor prognosis 35

36 Disorders of Platelets
Hemophilia X-linked hereditary bleeding disorder Several types Type A Most common Male children from asymptomatic mothers Lack protein necessary for clot formation 36

37 Disorders of Platelets
Hemophilia Symptoms: Epistaxis Bruising Prolonged bleeding Diagnosis by blood test 37

38 Disorders of Platelets
Hemophilia Treatment: Prevention of injury Treat symptoms Blood transfusions Concentrated form of clotting protein No cure 38

39 Disorders of Platelets
Thrombocytopenia Also known as thrombocytopenia purpura Decrease in platelets leading to inability to normally clot blood Symptoms: Abnormal bleeding in skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs Petechiae 39

40 Disorders of Platelets
Thrombocytopenia Symptoms: Ecchymoses GI hemorrhages Epistaxis Hematuria 40

41 Disorders of Platelets
Thrombocytopenia Diagnosis by platelet count and bleeding time Treatment: Avoid tissue trauma to reduce bleeding Vitamin K Transfusions of platelets Splenectomy 41

42 Disorders of Platelets
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) Abnormal clotting followed by abnormal bleeding Usually follows major trauma E.g., complicated childbirth, surgery, tissue destruction, septicemia, snakebite, shock Multiple clots in capillaries Life-threatening 42

43 Disorders of Platelets
DIC Symptoms: Petechiae Ecchymosis Hematoma Hematuria GI bleeding Hematemesis Blood in stool Treatment: Heparin or infusion of platelets 43

44 Rare Diseases Thalassemia Von Willebrand’s disease Lymphosarcoma
Primarily affects people of Mediterranean descent Fragile, thin RBCs form defective hemoglobin Von Willebrand’s disease Hereditary, congenital Deficiency in clotting factor and platelet function Lymphosarcoma A type of lymphoma Symptoms similar to Hodgkin’s disease 44

45 Effects of Aging Age-related changes in other systems (e.g., immune, digestive) leave older adults more susceptible to infections and nutritionally related blood disorders Decreased iron Most common disorder is anemia Poor nutrition 45

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