5Plasma Plasma Water Proteins 90–92% by volumeProteinsAlbumins: thicken the bloodGlobulins: antibodiesFibrinogen: clotting factorsSerum – plasma minus its clotting factors, RBC’s, and WBC’sA little more than half the blood volume is plasma
6Plasma What does plasma do? Acts as the primary means of transport Plays a role in clottingActs a bufferProvides a source of energy
7Red Blood Cells(Erythrocytes)Can live up to 4 month
8Red Blood Cells Hemoglobin Oxygen affinity Circular shape with an indention – helps make more surface areaTransport oxygen and carbon dioxideHemoglobin (red pigmentoxyhemoglobin carries oxygen out to the cells of the bodyalso carries a small portion of carbon dioxideOxygenated blood has Oxyhemoglobin, which holds 4 oxygens each bound to an iron in the Heme group.Deoxygenated blood has Carbaminohemoglobin (carbamate). 2 CO2's can be held by each hemoglobin. The rest is dissolved in plasma as HCO3-.
9White blood cells(leukocytes)defend the body against invaders
11White Blood Cells White Blood Cell Catagories: Granulocytes BasophilNeutrophilEosinophilLymphocytesMonocytesNeutrophils and Monocytes engulf microbes – phagocytosisEosinophils and Basophils help protect us from parasites and irritants that cause allergies
12White Blood Cells Immunity Subpopulation of lymphocytes known as T cells and B cellsT cells develop cellular immunity.B cells produce humoral immunity.Lymphocytes – help with the immune mechanism (immunity) – types T and B
15Damaged cells release certain clotting factors into the plasma – forming prothrombin activator Platelets become sticky at the point of injury and soon accumulate near the opening in the broken blood vessel, forming a soft, temporary platelet plugProthrombin converts to thrombin which reacts with fibrinogen to form a fibrous gel called fibrin – looks like a tangle of fine threads that catch RBC’s
16The combined 3 mechanisms that work to prevent or control blood loss. HemostasisThe combined 3 mechanisms that work to prevent or control blood loss.
27Blood Products and Blood Typing Blood TypesAntigensA, B, AB, OUniversal donorsUniversal recipientsRh factorAntigen – A “marker” that can activate the immune system – like making antibodiesAntibodies – substance made by the body in response to stimulation by an antigenMany antibodies react with their antigens to clump together or “agglutinateRh system – Rh+ blood contains an antigen called Rh factor – 85% of whites 88% in African-Americans. Rh – blood does not contain the Rh factor
28Diseases of the Red Blood Cells AnemiasSickle Cell DiseasePolycythemia
29Diseases of the Red Blood Cells AnemiasAnemia is a sign, not a separate disease process.Signs and symptoms may not be present until the body is stressed.Differentiate chronic anemia from acute episode.the inability of blood to carry oxygen to the cells
30Diseases of the Red Blood Cells Sickle Cell DiseaseSickle cell crises
31Diseases of the Red Blood Cells PolycythemiaOverproduction of erythrocytesOccurs in patients >50 years old or with secondary dehydration.Results in bleeding abnormalities
32Diseases of the White Blood Cells Leukopenia/NeutropeniaLeukocytosisLeukemiaLymphomas
33Diseases of the White Blood Cells Leukopenia/NeutropeniaToo few white blood cells or neutrophils.LeukocytosisAn increase in the number of circulating white blood cells, often due to infection.
34Diseases of the White Blood Cells LeukemiaCancer of hematopoietic cellsInitial presentationAcutely ill, fatigued, febrile and weak, anemicOften have a secondary infection
35Diseases of the White Blood Cells LymphomasCancers of the lymphatic systemPresentationSwelling of the lymph nodesFever, night sweats, anorexia, weight loss, fatigue, and pururitis
36Diseases of the Platelets ThrombocytosisAn abnormal increase in the number of plateletsThrombocytopeniaAn abnormal decrease in the number of platelets
37Blood Clotting Abnormalities HemophiliaDeficiency or absence of a blood clotting factor