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Blood Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "Blood Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Blood Chapter

2 Hematology The Study of Blood and Blood-Forming Organs
Includes study of blood disorders: Red blood cell disorders White blood cell disorders Platelet disorders Coagulation problems

3 RBCs, WBCs, Platelets and Plasma
Components of Blood RBCs, WBCs, Platelets and Plasma

4 Plasma

5 Plasma Plasma Water Proteins
90–92% by volume Proteins Albumins: thicken the blood Globulins: antibodies Fibrinogen: clotting factors Serum – plasma minus its clotting factors, RBC’s, and WBC’s A little more than half the blood volume is plasma

6 Plasma What does plasma do? Acts as the primary means of transport
Plays a role in clotting Acts a buffer Provides a source of energy

7 Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) Can live up to 4 month

8 Red Blood Cells Hemoglobin Oxygen affinity
Circular shape with an indention – helps make more surface area Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide Hemoglobin (red pigment oxyhemoglobin carries oxygen out to the cells of the body also carries a small portion of carbon dioxide Oxygenated blood has Oxyhemoglobin, which holds 4 oxygens each bound to an iron in the Heme group. Deoxygenated blood has Carbaminohemoglobin (carbamate). 2 CO2's can be held by each hemoglobin. The rest is dissolved in plasma as HCO3-.

9 White blood cells (leukocytes) defend the body against invaders

10 White Blood Cells Provide defense-

11 White Blood Cells White Blood Cell Catagories: Granulocytes
Basophil Neutrophil Eosinophil Lymphocytes Monocytes Neutrophils and Monocytes engulf microbes – phagocytosis Eosinophils and Basophils help protect us from parasites and irritants that cause allergies

12 White Blood Cells Immunity
Subpopulation of lymphocytes known as T cells and B cells T cells develop cellular immunity. B cells produce humoral immunity. Lymphocytes – help with the immune mechanism (immunity) – types T and B

13 Immune Response

14 Platelets (thrombocyte) help clot the blood

15 Damaged cells release certain clotting factors into the plasma – forming prothrombin activator
Platelets become sticky at the point of injury and soon accumulate near the opening in the broken blood vessel, forming a soft, temporary platelet plug Prothrombin converts to thrombin which reacts with fibrinogen to form a fibrous gel called fibrin – looks like a tangle of fine threads that catch RBC’s

16 The combined 3 mechanisms that work to prevent or control blood loss.
Hemostasis The combined 3 mechanisms that work to prevent or control blood loss.

17 Hemostasis Controlling Blood Loss Vascular spasms Platelet plugs
Stable fibrin blood clots

18 Hemostasis


20 Hemostasis Fibrinolysis Thrombosis Fibrinolytics
In your squads, discuss how medications affect clot formation.

21 Blood Collection and Values
Lab Work Blood Collection and Values

22 Lab Work

23 Purple Top CBC- Complete Blood Count Used for Hematology:
RBC: M/uL WBC: K/mm3 Neutrophils: 50-81% Bands: 1-5% Lymphocytes: 14-44% Monocytes: 2-6% Eosinophils: 1-5% Basophils: 0-1%

24 Purple Top Hbg (hemaglobin): 11-18 g/dL Hct (hematocrit): 34-54%
CBC- Complete Blood Count Hbg (hemaglobin): g/dL Hct (hematocrit): % Platelets: x10-3/dL

25 In your squad, discuss what you have learned about CBCs.

26 Blood Typing

27 Blood Products and Blood Typing
Blood Types Antigens A, B, AB, O Universal donors Universal recipients Rh factor Antigen – A “marker” that can activate the immune system – like making antibodies Antibodies – substance made by the body in response to stimulation by an antigen Many antibodies react with their antigens to clump together or “agglutinate Rh system – Rh+ blood contains an antigen called Rh factor – 85% of whites 88% in African-Americans. Rh – blood does not contain the Rh factor

28 Diseases of the Red Blood Cells
Anemias Sickle Cell Disease Polycythemia

29 Diseases of the Red Blood Cells
Anemias Anemia is a sign, not a separate disease process. Signs and symptoms may not be present until the body is stressed. Differentiate chronic anemia from acute episode. the inability of blood to carry oxygen to the cells

30 Diseases of the Red Blood Cells
Sickle Cell Disease Sickle cell crises

31 Diseases of the Red Blood Cells
Polycythemia Overproduction of erythrocytes Occurs in patients >50 years old or with secondary dehydration. Results in bleeding abnormalities

32 Diseases of the White Blood Cells
Leukopenia/Neutropenia Leukocytosis Leukemia Lymphomas

33 Diseases of the White Blood Cells
Leukopenia/Neutropenia Too few white blood cells or neutrophils. Leukocytosis An increase in the number of circulating white blood cells, often due to infection.

34 Diseases of the White Blood Cells
Leukemia Cancer of hematopoietic cells Initial presentation Acutely ill, fatigued, febrile and weak, anemic Often have a secondary infection

35 Diseases of the White Blood Cells
Lymphomas Cancers of the lymphatic system Presentation Swelling of the lymph nodes Fever, night sweats, anorexia, weight loss, fatigue, and pururitis

36 Diseases of the Platelets
Thrombocytosis An abnormal increase in the number of platelets Thrombocytopenia An abnormal decrease in the number of platelets

37 Blood Clotting Abnormalities
Hemophilia Deficiency or absence of a blood clotting factor

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