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Rana Sanyal Molecules versus Malaria Rana Sanyal

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Presentation on theme: "Rana Sanyal Molecules versus Malaria Rana Sanyal"— Presentation transcript:

1 Rana Sanyal Molecules versus Malaria Rana Sanyal

2 Rana Sanyal Molecules versus Malaria Caused by _______________ May be the greatest killer of humanity for all time: _____________ cases annually, ____________ deaths. Transmitted more rapidly than AIDS: HIV positive patients infect between ____________; each infected malaria patient can transmit disease to hundreds. Typical symptoms: ______________________ _________________________________ Malaria is transmitted from one human to another through ________________________ Written records from China, India & Egypt dates thousands of years ago.

3 Rana Sanyal The Malarial Parasite The malarial parasite is extremely small, and inside you its life cycle consists primarily of invading __________ (which are huge by comparison) and eating out the insides and using that material to make more malarial parasites. Eventually you have a loose bag filled with parasites, and it bursts. While the parasites are out in the blood plasma, the _____________ is capable of recognizing and attacking them. But they don't have to search far to find a new red blood cell to invade, and while they're inside the red blood cell they've vanished as far as the immune system is concerned.

4 Rana Sanyal Symptoms Symptons of malaria include ______________________ _________________________________________ Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea may also occur. Malaria may cause _______ and _______ (yellow coloring of the skin and eyes) because of the loss of red blood cells. Infection may cause kidney failure, seizures, mental confusion, coma and death. For most people, symptons begin 10 days to 4 weeks after infection, although a person may feel ill as early as 8 days or up to 1 year later. Some malaria parasites can rest in the liver for ______________________ after a person is bitten by an infected mosquito. When these parasites come out of hibernation and begin invading red blood cells, the person will become sick. Malaria is diagnosed by _________________________

5 Rana Sanyal Life Cycle of Plasmodium

6 Rana Sanyal Three Different Molecules: 1. Quinine The genus _______contains about forty species of trees. They grow 15-20 meters in height and produce white, pink, or yellow flowers. All cinchonas are indigenous to ________________ _____________________, where they grow from 1,500-3,000 meters in elevation on either side of the equator (from Colombia to Bolivia). They can also be found in the northern part of the Andes

7 Rana Sanyal Travel of The Quina Tree from South America to The Old World –In 1640s ________ was brought to ______. –End of 18th century _______ quina trees were being cut each year. –________ was first isolated in 1792. –_______________ was attempted in 1856. –As European colonization increased in malarial regions the demand grew. –___________________________ prohibited export of living cinchona plants or seeds. –In 1853 seeds were smuggled and bought by ______ but only _____ quinine content. –In 1861 different seeds were smuggled and bought by ____: _____ quinine content! –By 1930 >95% of the world’s quinine came from __________. –In 1940 Germany invaded Netherlands and confiscated the complete European stock.

8 Rana Sanyal Synthesis of Quinine by Perkin In 2001 (145 years after Perkin) Quinine has been synthesized by Prof. Stork’s group.

9 Rana Sanyal Man’s Solution to Malaria Complex Association between parasite, insect and man

10 Rana Sanyal Control of Mosquito Population Acts as interfering with a nerve control process unique to insects Estimated lethal dose for humanis __________ There are no reported human deaths from DDT It is believed that DDT _________________________ _____________________. It is thought that the birds are compromised by eating DDT poisoned insects. DDT was ____________ by the Environmental Protection Agency. It is still used in some countries.

11 Rana Sanyal Nature’s Protection: Hemoglobin Hemoglobin is an ________________________________________. The iron found within hemoglobin is housed in four heme Groups. By binding reversibly to oxygen gas through its iron atom,heme enables hemoglobin to pick up oxygen in the lungs and release it in the tissues.

12 Rana Sanyal Sickle Cell Anemia

13 Rana Sanyal Sickle Cell Anemia A genetic disease of the red blood cells Result: Permanent damage in organs! Until recently sickle cell anemia was fatal at childhood.

14 Rana Sanyal Sickle Cell Anemia versus Malaria Carriers of sickle cell trait who live in malarial areas, the disease offers invaluable compensation: ________________________

15 Rana Sanyal Sickle Cell Anemia versus Malaria Those who inherited the sickle cell trait from both parents ____________________. Those who did not inherit it from either parent ____________________ __________________. Those inheriting the sicle cell gene from only one parent ______________________. Therefore the inherited disorder of sickle cell anemia not only continued in a population, it increased over generations.

16 Rana Sanyal Molecules Affecting the World European colonization of much of the world was made possible by _______________________. It was the success of _____________ that finally eradicated malaria from Europe and North America in 20 th century.

17 Rana Sanyal Molecules Affecting the World Resistance to malaria was a crucial factor in the rapid growth of the _____________________________: Slaves from Africa could survive the fevers of tropical climates whereas native Americans would rapidly succumb to diseases. This small molecular change doomed generations of Africans to slavery. Great sugar plantations of the New World, production of cotton might not have existed. Events of the past millenium would have been very different: __________________________________________ __________________________________________ ____________________________________

18 Rana Sanyal So... 3 Seemingly Unrelated Molecules: –________ Has shaped the World History.

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