Presentation on theme: "MALARIA A Widespread Disease.... RESEARCH PROJECT."— Presentation transcript:
MALARIA A Widespread Disease...
A DEADLY DISEASE AROUND THE CORNER Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes Symptoms include fevers, chills, illnesses The malaria parasite is developing resistance to current drugs
ARTEMISININ: THE KEY TO LIFE A drug that can treat malaria 3 forms of artemisinin arsenuate artemether artemisinin
THE PLANT WHICH SAVES LIVES Artemisinin comes from the Artemisia Annua plant Grows in Asia, especially China Artemisinin is found in the leaves
RETHINKING THE SOURCE OF ARTEMISININ Bad Harvests can occur Our dependence is on farmers for artemisinin It is very costly Consistent Reliable Pure Inexpensive SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY
KEASLING TO THE RESCUE Genes were inserted into E.coli to produce a precursor of artemisinin Once the artemisinin is created it is converted to an antimalarial drug which is then mixed with another drug This is known as Artemisinin Combination Therapy(ACT)
SYNTHESIS OF ARTEMISININ Synthesis in E.coli Synthesis in Sweet Wormwood
HOW IT WORKS Malaria parasite lies within the red blood cell Artemisinin reacts withe the iron in the cell Artemisinin releases free radicals which attacks molecules within the cell of the parasite in effect killing it
SUCCESS ACTs are recognized as first line malarial treatment by the WHO Recent studies have shown that artemisinin has a positive affect on patients ACTs are a great advancement, especially in developing countries
PURPOSE:MALARIA According to WHO, there are 247 million cases in one year Malaria exists in 109 countries around the world About 90 percent of malaria-related deaths occur in developing countries If the disease is contracted during pregnancy, it can be passed to the infant or result in low birth weight, which decreases the baby’s chance of survival.
COMPETING TECHNOLOGIES ACT (Artemisinin) Antimalarial Drugs such as quinine and chlorine
EXPECTED RESULTS Gene Coding for Malaryase 1 0 Presense of Malaria Parasite 0 1 the malaria parasites in the human body is broken down at the molecular level malaria is treated within the human population
ADVANTAGES the design treats malaria both effectively and conveniently Malaria will treated among the humans who are diagnosed with it Antimalaria offers a simple treatment
PROBLEMS The drugs might weaken natural immunity of humans The drug might have side effects The repressor might recognize the inducer as something other than the malaria parasite