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© Dart Centre 2006 Trauma & News Training & Culture Change Mark Brayne, Director Europe Dart Centre for Journalism &Trauma.

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Presentation on theme: "© Dart Centre 2006 Trauma & News Training & Culture Change Mark Brayne, Director Europe Dart Centre for Journalism &Trauma."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Dart Centre 2006 Trauma & News Training & Culture Change Mark Brayne, Director Europe Dart Centre for Journalism &Trauma

2 © Dart Centre 2006 The Dart Centre’s mission To be a forum and resource for promoting the ethical, sensitive and informed reporting of tragedy and violence; To support the education of working journalists and journalism students in the science and psychology of trauma and its impact; To develop and promote the organisational, peer-led and individual support of journalists and teams who cover trauma ; To support and disseminate research and best practice in the field of journalism and trauma.

3 © Dart Centre 2006 Hack + Shrink = ? = + Shrack …….

4 © Dart Centre 2006 The Facts Comes with the journalistic territory…  Not just war  Also crime, accidents, violence…...  Handling images and words Role/responsibility of the media as professional 1 st responders Duty of Care – cf other professions Understanding trauma makes for  Healthier journalism  Healthier journalists

5 © Dart Centre 2006 Ben Brown

6 © Dart Centre 2006 Examples of Trauma Journalism 2

7 © Dart Centre 2006 The Guardian, Oct 10 2005

8 © Dart Centre 2006 Don McCullin When I went to war I came back with enormous guilt. I was a confused person. If I hadn't kept this very fine balance in check I think I would have gone mad.

9 © Dart Centre 2006 Janine di Giovani My husband came home from two years of war in the Ivory Coast with nightmares, sweats, insomnia and the feeling that he will never be safe again. For me, something turned when I heard the news of my friend who killed himself.

10 © Dart Centre 2006 Nael Shyoukhri, Reuters West Bank What you shoot, what you film and see can't just be forgotten easily. These pictures go home with you, stay in your mind, in your dreams.

11 © Dart Centre 2006








19 A Scenario – Duty of Care A small team of a news organisation’s journalists came under attack during a patrol with the American military in Iraq. Two were seriously hurt. Two came away with scratches only. They have just returned.  What do you expect they would do as line manager/editor/organisation?  What do you think they’re likely to need?  Who should they turn to for support and advice? Discuss in twos/threes…

20 © Dart Centre 2006 Depression  Tired, mood, sleep, worthless, gloomy thoughts, low self- esteem Anxiety / Guilt  Nervous, worry, physical, peeing, “can’t cope”, fear of catastrophe Substance Abuse  Drink, drugs, alcohol, caffeine – to numb Relationship, Sexual and Eating problems Group distress/Teamwork dysfunction Acute/Post Traumatic Stress Disorder A/PTSD What trauma can do But, Recovery and even Growth/Meaning most likely outcome…

21 © Dart Centre 2006 Journalists as First-Responders Road traffic accidents Armed combat and its aftermath Murder, including the trials Terrorist incidents Social Deprivation Child abuse Transcribing testimony & monitoring reports… Undercover reporting Detention / being held hostage Riots Plane/train/rail crashes Natural disasters Personal assault And more – including a difficult editor or boss…

22 © Dart Centre 2006 The Journalist’s Brain

23 © Dart Centre 2006 The More Evolved Human Brain

24 © Dart Centre 2006 Who’s at Risk 1 Those with responsibility: Managers, Editors, team leaders On assignment: reporters, cameras, etc Others also exposed: fixers, local staff, tech support etc Those back on base taking material in: e.g. Picture editors Social Support: families, partners, children, friends & colleagues Readers, Viewers, Audiences…

25 Who’s at Risk 2 Witnessing death/injury…....6% (m): 8% (f) Life-threatening accident ….6% (m): 9% (f) Physical attack………………2% (m): 21% (f) Combat...............................38% (m) Natural disaster…………..... 4% (m): 5% (f) Rape...................................65% (m): 46% (f) Kessler et al, 1995; Feinstein 2002 War reporters……………………28%

26 How to deal with Trauma (NICE slide edited) What isn’t recommended… “Psychological Debriefing” Ineffective psychological treatments For PTSD, drug treatments NOT a first line treatment (different for depression) What is recommended… “Watchful Waiting” Trauma-focused treatments (CBT and EMDR) for adults and children (Note military experience of cohesive social bonds, and “Forward Psychiatry” – PIES)

27 © Dart Centre 2006 Organisations: Filling the Gap Internal Editorial Programmes Management Safety Occ Health HR Training Etc HE training provider Filling the gap - TRAINING! - Destigmatisation - Culture change - Briefing Before - Support During - Support After - Structured Conversation - Info - Website - Referrals Confidential Counselling

28 © Dart Centre 2006 The Model Entry level awareness training for all Explicit training for managers/editors Briefings BEFORE assignment Active and educated support DURING Appropriate support AFTER  Active and empathic listening  Watching for signs  Removing the stigma  WITHIN the culture Professional/expert support for those who need it

29 © Dart Centre 2006 Counselling – at the right time

30 © Dart Centre 2006 Feedback 1 “In changing the culture, and conveying the holistic understanding of the journalist, you’ve been spectacularly successful” – Stephen Whittle “Extremely interesting & invaluable. Should be mandatory” “I will spell out the risk of trauma and not treat it as taboo” “It will change how we assign and how we treat individuals on return from a difficult assignment” “Great to see it being formalised within the BBC “ “It helped me that very evening to deal with a reporter who'd just returned from New Orleans “ “This is vital and fills and big gap. Highly relevant “

31 © Dart Centre 2006 Feedback 2 “An essential tool in the job I have been doing on a daily basis” “One of the best I have been on. Utterly jargon- free, completely mature and entirely practical. A blessed relief. More like this please “ “The aim should be that this is taught early in journalists’ career “ “Ground-breaking work in an area of increasing importance“

32 © Dart Centre 2006 Dart Guidelines on Images C.f. radiation Does it need to be fed – or watched? Sound can be the worst. Turn it off Clear guidelines where - and whether - graphic material is stored Education, Training & Patience Physical Environment – windows, greenery, screen breaks, etc

33 © Dart Centre 2006 Dart Centre Activity Seattle, Europe & Oz Duty-of-Care: The Journalist  BBC/Newsweek/WashPost  CNN/FT/ITN/NBC  Al-Jazeera The Journalism of Trauma  Bournemouth/Cardiff Univs  Seattle/Michigan/Oz Workshops/seminars  Germany ARD/ZDF  Russian NUJ  Denmark  Turkey  ESTSS  Portugal/Spain Frontline Club  E.g. Beslan & Children’s trauma  Tsunami  Handling Violent Images  Women Reporting War… Website.  E.g. Training  Guidelines  Personal Stories  Trauma News Blog

34 © Dart Centre 2006 The Wrong Solution…

35 © Dart Centre 2006 Resources that we draw attention to 

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