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© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Chapter 12 Rational-Emotive- Behavior Therapy We do not see things as they are; we see things as we are. The Talmud
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Chapter Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Outline the development of rational emotive behavioral therapy Explain the theory of rational emotive behavior therapy Discuss the counseling relationship and goals in rational emotive behavior therapy Describe assessment, process, and techniques Demonstrate some therapeutic techniques Clarify the effectiveness of rational emotive behavior therapy
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Albert Ellis Grew up in New York City Difficult childhood Earned a Business Administration degree form City University 1934 In depression worked in clothing and as personnel manager Wanted to write (on sexual adjustment) and did Earned doctorate from Columbia University in Clinical Psychology in 1947
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning His discoveries in therapy 1.Client treated once a week progressed as well as those he treated daily. 2.He found he got faster results when he took a more active role. 3.He discovered that interjecting advice and direct interpretation yielded faster results than passive psychoanalytical procedures 4.Developed a rationalist philosophy Change behavior through confrontation Change irrational beliefs to more rational ones
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning REBT and the Nature of People 1.“What disturbs men’s minds is not events, but their judgment of events.” (Epictetus) 2.People are neither good nor bad if they respond to others with a rational belief system. 3.If they react with irrational beliefs, they view themselves and others as evil, awful, and horrible whenever they fall short of their expectations. 4.They think crookedly about their desires and escalate them in a self-defeating manner into musts, shoulds, oughts and demands. 5.In assimilating these irrational beliefs, people become emotionally disturbed and feel negative feelings.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Frank engages in irrational thinking Frank hates self Frank engages in self destructive behavior Frank hates others Others react irrationally toward Frank The Circle of Irrationality
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Three areas of irrational beliefs I must be perfect. o It is awful when I am not perfect therefore I am worthless Others must be perfect. o If people don’t treat me fairly and honestly they should be utterly damned The world must be a perfect place to live o Pleasure is better than pain therefore life is horrible when I am in pain
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Demandingness Self-demandingness o we must always perform well and have everyone’s approval; o if not, we are incompetent and unworthy. o results: self-hatred, anxiety, depression, procrastination, withdrawal, and obsessiveness. Other-demandingness o refers to the idea that people we encounter must always be considerate and fair; o if they are not, they are unworthy, bad, and deserve to be punished. o effects: anger, hurt, jealousy, vindictiveness, and violence. World-demandingness o implies that our life conditions should be enjoyable, hassle-free, safe; o if not, the world is horrible and unbearable. o results: anger, depression, self-pity, low tolerance, withdrawal, phobias, and addictions
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Theory of Counseling People in our culture have irrational beliefs It is absolutely necessary to be loved by everyone for everything we do One should be completely competent, adequate, and achieving in all possible respects
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Theory of Counseling There are five categories of irrational beliefs Self-defeating (I am a failure) Dogmatic (unrealistic preferences/wishes) Antisocial (destroys social group) Unrealistic (misunderstanding reality) Contradictory (originating in false premises)
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Theory of Counseling People choose their beliefs and can choose to change Goal of REBT is to teach people to think and behave in a more personally satisfying way Teach people to take responsibility for their own logical thinking and the consequences and behaviors that follow it
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning REBT Counselors direct the process of therapy are skilled teachers, communicators, and problem solvers have a sense of humor they use appropriately in counseling are not afraid of taking risks such as challenging their clients focus on the present as they explore and question their clients’ irrational thoughts accept themselves as flawed and work on their own irrational beliefs
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning ABC’s of REBT AActivating Event BBelief System CConsequences DDisputing Irrational Belief EChanging Irrational to Rational Beliefs
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning General Example EventSomething unpleasant happened Belief It was awful and should never have happened ConsequenceYou become upset Dispute Why is it awful? Why shouldn’t it happen? Change It’s a disappointment, not a disaster I can handle it
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Irrational Factors
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Another Example A I got rejected B I can’t stand it. He has no right. It shouldn’t be. I’m going to get even. I’m a reject. I’m worthless C I got depressed, felt I was no good, cried, threatened to kill myself, fought with my parents D Why can’t you stand it? Why doesn’t he have the right? Why are you worthless and a reject? E It is unpleasant but you can stand it. Actually he does have the right.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning REB Education Teach Children The joy of playing games just because they are fun Significant achievements rarely come easily and nothing is wrong with working long and hard to achieve one’s goals They are not bad people when they do not meet their goals Perfection is not required to be a worthwhile person Popularity and achievement are not necessarily related and being worthwhile does not require 100% popularity Not to take themselves and situations too seriously by turning minor setbacks into catastrophe
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