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PRESENTATION 3 Fritz Perls & Albert Ellis. Fritz Perls (1893-1970) Born in Berlin Studied medicine and became a doctor after WWI Assisted Kurt Goldstein.

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Presentation on theme: "PRESENTATION 3 Fritz Perls & Albert Ellis. Fritz Perls (1893-1970) Born in Berlin Studied medicine and became a doctor after WWI Assisted Kurt Goldstein."— Presentation transcript:

1 PRESENTATION 3 Fritz Perls & Albert Ellis

2 Fritz Perls ( ) Born in Berlin Studied medicine and became a doctor after WWI Assisted Kurt Goldstein in his studies on brain- injured soldiers Developed an interest in psychoanalysis

3 Fritz Perls He served as army psychiatrist from Gestalt Therapy: Excitement and Growth in the Human Personality (1951)  Co-authored Paul Goodman and Laura Perls  Taught the core of Gestalt Therapy Founded the first Gestalt institute in 1952 from his Manhattan apartment

4 Fritz Perls Gestalt Therapy  an existential/experiential form of psychotherapy that emphasizes personal responsibility, and that focuses upon the individual's experience in the present moment, the therapist- client relationship, the environmental and social contexts of a person's life, and the self-regulating adjustments people make as a result of their overall situation  4 parts  phenomenological method  dialogical relationship  field-theoretical strategies  experimental freedom

5 Phenomenological Method Phenomenological Method Dialogical Relationship Dialogical Relationship Therapist works systematically to reduce the effect of bias through repeated observations and inquiry Similar to the study of body language Forming a relationship with the client in order to make them feel welcome and trustful to the therapist Fritz Perls

6 Field-Theoretical Strategies Field-Theoretical Strategies Experimental Freedom Experimental Freedom The Therapist focuses on two strategies  Phenomenological  Ontological These help someone become aware of their own character Through experiments, the therapist supports the client’s direct experience of something new, instead of merely talking about the possibility of something new Fritz Perls

7 In 1963 he became interested in Zen and stayed at a monastery in Japan In 1969 he built a house at Esalen and taught Dick Price who went on to develop Gestalt Practice  The objective of the practice is to become more fully aware of the process of living within a unified field of body, mind, relationship, earth and spirit He died of heart failure in 1970 in Chicago after a heart surgery

8 Albert Ellis ( ) Born in Pittsburgh, PA Hospitalized eight times between the ages of 5 and 7 Parents offered little emotion support Extreme fear of public speaking and speaking to women during his adolescence

9 Albert Ellis Obtained in Ph.D in clinical psychology from Columbia University in 1947 Very interested in the theories of Sigmund Freud– especially psychoanalysis Horney, Fromm, Adler, and Sullivan greatly influenced his thinking and development of psychological models In 1953 he abandoned psychoanalysis and began a new approach called Rational Therapy

10 Albert Ellis Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)  based on the premise that whenever we become upset, it is not the events taking place in our lives that upset us; it is the beliefs that we hold that cause us to become depressed, anxious, enraged, etc.  Epictetus originally thought of this 2000 years earlier  "Men are disturbed not by events, but by the views which they take of them.“  the goal is to be happy, because that is what everyone wants to be

11 Albert Ellis Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)  The ABC Model  A: something happens  B: you have a belief about the situation  C: you have an emotional response to the situation A doesn’t cause C---B causes C

12 Albert Ellis The 3 basic “Musts” 1. I must do well and win the approval of others for my performances or else I am no good. 2. Other people must treat me considerately, fairly and kindly, and in exactly the way I want them to treat me. If they don't, they are no good and they deserve to be condemned and punished. 3. I must get what I want, when I want it; and I must not get what I don't want. It's terrible if I don't get what I want, and I can't stand it.

13 Albert Ellis Sex Without Guilt (1958)  Known for its sexual liberal attitude  Religious restriction on sexual expression are often needless and harmful to emotional health Homosexuality: It’s Causes and Cure (1965)  Saw homosexuality as something that could be cured Sex and the Liberated Man (1976)  Reversed his notion about homosexuality  Homosexuality should not be treated because it is neither good or evil (except in religion)

14 Albert Ellis Sex Without Guilt in the 21 st Century (2001)  Updated version of Sex Without Guilt  Dedicated a chapter on homosexuality giving them advice on how to improve their sexual love life  His views of ethics were updated in this version Declared himself atheist in the 2000s Until he fell ill in 2006, he worked at least 16 hours a day Died at the age of 93 in 2007 from natural causes


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