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1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M- F-7uApykM 1ALAN MASON

2 Diploma level 1 Know how to produce components from moulds. Unit no CC1013K 2ALAN MASON

3 Aim(s) of the lesson For students to successfully complete unit CC1013K Know how to produce components from moulds. Learning objectives All students will be able to identify different types of fibrous tools. Students will be able to recognise and name associated trade tools required for making flood moulds. All students will have an understanding of different materials associated with fibrous plastering. Students will take part in a discussion regarding health & safety ALAN MASON3

4 Fibrous Work Fibrous plasterwork is the ornamental, decorative side of plastering The tools you will be using are very different of those used in traditional plastering The plaster used is pure gypsum Fibrous plasterwork is made in workshops and transported to site You will need the ability to imagine work in reverse Maths and geometry skills and the ability to measure accurately Fibrous work requires patience and delicate hands ALAN MASON4

5 Basic operations Moulding process – forming of a reverse shape of an item in solid or flexible material Casting – producing the finished product from a mould Casts – can be produced both in casting plaster (hemi-hydrate class A ) and sand and cement (ordinary Portland) from flood moulds. ALAN MASON5

6 Tools required for fibrous plasterwork Joint rule Splash brush Busk Small tool 6 ALAN MASON bowl for bench work Scissors

7 Tools required for fibrous plasterwork 7 ALAN MASON Joint rule Scissors bowl for bench work Splash brush Busk Small tool

8 Tools for making running moulds Coping saw Surform/Rasp Files Wood chisel Tin Snips Square Panel or cross pein hammer Claw hammer Tenon Saw Drawing Compass, 8 ALAN MASON

9 Tools for making running moulds Coping saw Surform/Rasp Files Wood chisel Tin Snips Square Panel or cross pein hammer Claw hammer Tenon Saw Drawing Compass, 9 ALAN MASON

10 Equipment for casting mouldings Fibrous plasterwork needs a range of different items of equipment. Buckets Bowls ALAN MASON10 These should be made of heavy duty plastic because they will take a lot of wear. Used for mixing larger amounts of plaster, carrying water and rubbish. These are usually made from plastic or rubber, for easy cleaning after use. They are used for mixing up small quantities of plaster and for holding water.

11 Fibrous Bench Benches These should be made to last, with a strong timber frame, usually about 3m long and 1m wide, and will have a topping of plaster, which makes it easier to repair holes and damage to the face of the bench, Some benches are covered with hard-wearing laminate (like a kitchen worktop) The bench must have a true, straight running rule of timber or metal on each side for running out mouldings. ALAN MASON11

12 ALAN MASON12

13 Plaster used for fibrous work This is called casting plaster the correct name is Hemi – hydrate plaster (Class A as specified in BS 1191) During manufacture three quarters of the water is driven off using heat. When mixing the water is added back into the natural gypsum and is cast as you wish into a mould. Dextrene: when made into a solution and added to the water in which plaster/render (cement casting) is to be mixed it will both harden and retard. ALAN MASON13

14 Why does casting plaster become warm? As the plaster sets it becomes warm therefore making a chemical reaction This releases the heat generated during manufacture, the plaster then cools and then sets Casting plaster is manufactured at different strengths according to the work carried out. The hardness of plasters can be found in the manufacturers information ALAN MASON14

15 Fine casting plaster is used for most casting needs, running mouldings and producing plaster casts. It is also the plaster that is used in fixing and mitring. It is the most used of all fibrous plasters. Fine Casting plaster is probably the most common general purpose plaster. It is a "beta" plaster versatile and economical its used in numerous industries. It is light in weight and easily carved once set.. Plaster/water ratio: 1.3kg/Litre. Bag size 25Kg. Price: £6.73 ALAN MASON15

16 Fine Plus Casting Plaster is a general purpose beta plaster that has better working characteristics than fine casting. Plaster/water ratio: 1.3kg/Litre. Made in the UK Bag size:- 25Kg. Price: £7.06 ALAN MASON16 Super fine plaster is a much finer material and is used for detail work, i.e. mouldings, etc. that have delicate shapes and lines. It is also used with fine plaster when casting. For example, the face of the cast would be in super fine (‘firstings’), and then the fine would be used to back up the casts (‘seconds’).

17 Crystacast Plaster is a "top of the range" product by nature of its extreme hardness and density. Used anywhere that high surface harness is needed. Fibrous plasters also come in degrees of strength. For example, if you are producing mouldings that are liable to get damaged, you want a good hard plaster. Similarly, if you have a cast that may need a bit of work to get it out of the mould, then a slightly harder plaster is needed. A reverse mould that will have a lot of casts taken from it may need a hard face, so again it is sensible to choose a harder grade of plaster. Manufacturer’s technical literature will provide information on the hardness of plasters ALAN MASON17 Plaster/water ratio: 3.57kg/litre Pack size:- 25kg. Price: £17.82

18 Rugby Portland The original "general purpose" product, Rugby Portland is used in various applications, for concrete, mortar and render. It is consistent in quality and performance. For general use in concrete, mortar, render or screeds Compatible with lime and plasticising admixtures ALAN MASON18

19 Questions Q. Casting plaster is applied to flood moulds using a : A. Q. What type of cement is used for casting from flood moulds is: A. Q. Casting is also called a: A. Q. Small tools can be used to: A. Q. Dextrene is used as: A. Q. What is on each side of a casting bench: A. Q. Manufacturer’s technical literature will provide information on the..................... of plasters. ALAN MASON19

20 Questions Q. Casting plaster is applied to flood moulds using a : A. Splash brush Q. What type of cement is used for casting from flood moulds: A. Ordinary Portland Q. Casting is also called a: A. Class A plaster Q. Small tools can be used to: A. CLEAN UP CASTS Q. Dextrene is used as: A. A hardener Q. What is on each side of a casting bench: A. Straight running rule of timber. Q. Manufacturer’s technical literature will provide information on the..................... of plasters. ALAN MASON20 HARDNESS

21 Hessian/canvas Jute Scrim The narrowest of the woven jute products ideal for panel mouldings etc as well as general plastering… Jute Scrim Canvas 6" (15cm) Canvas, 6 inch/150cm wide Jute open weave. Roll length:- 200mtrs… Canvas 6" (15cm) Canvas 12" (30cm) Canvas, jute open weave. 12"/30cm wide. Roll length:- 200mtr… Canvas 12" (30cm) Canvas 18" (50cm) Canvas, 18 inch/50cm wide Jute open weave. Roll length:- 200mtrs.… Canvas 18" (50cm) ALAN MASON21

22 ALAN MASON22

23 Reinforcement Plasterers Jute Scrim for use in construction of Ornate Plaster ware to help prevent cracking out, may also be used to reinforce plaster based mould support cases. Available in several widths 3 inch (75mm), 6 inch (150mm), 12 inch (300mm) and 36 inch (900mm) nominal sizes. Hessian. Canvas. Jute ALAN MASON23

24 Methylated Spirit /Shellac Flakes Shellac Flakes Shellac Flakes are dissolved in industrial alcohol or good quality methylated spirit to make up shellac sealer. Starting point formula is 350gm per litre of spirit. Metylated Spirit 5ltr Methylated Spirit used for thinning shellac ALAN MASON24

25 Shellac flakes Shellac is a painter’s knotting or button polish Plasterers mix it with meths to thin it down Shellac is an all-natural resin secreted by the female lac bug to form a cocoon, on trees in the forests of India and Thailand lac bug IndiaThailand Shellac is used to seal the surface of the mould and prevents water from other coats been dried out Apply 3 thin coats to the plaster surface to give a polish Shellac is also used on bench surfaces ALAN MASON25

26 Lac (Laccifer Lacca) are scale insects (insects that attach themselves in great numbers to plants and trees) which drain the sap from the bark of their host tree, allowing them to secrete lac resin which is scraped off and manufactured into shellac. Around 300,000 insects are used to produce 1kg of lac resin ALAN MASON26

27 Size Because casting plaster has a setting time of about 15 minutes, for most casting jobs it would be too quick, so to slow it down we use size. Traditionally plasterers use painter’s glue size that is put into water to dissolve with a handful of lime. The lime is to stop the glue size becoming too stiff, because size needs to be in a liquid form. The liquid material is boiled in a bucket, allowed to cool and then tested for strength to see how long it will stop the plaster from setting. Glue size is used in casting as a retarder. ALAN MASON27

28 Alum This is an accelerator used in casting. Why do you think you would use this? ALAN MASON28

29 Grease/release agent/Raw Linseed Oil Raw Linseed Oil Raw Linseed Oil 500ml Bottle. Has many uses and works well as a releasing agent on fibreglass or sealed plaster moulds. (Tallow) Used to prevent the plaster from sticking to the bench, and also helps with the running of the mould along the bench. Made from animal Fat ALAN MASON29

30 Grease or release agent Traditionally made up of tallow (form of animal fat) mixed with cheap engine oil or meths. The ingredients are melted together and allowed to cool. This is applied by brush to grease up moulds and helps to release the cast. Neat tallow can be used when working with difficult reverse moulds Tallow is used when mould running on the bench to allow easy movement MOULDS Raw Linseed Oil is also applied to reverse moulds to help remove casts ALAN MASON30

31 Laths These are thin strips of sawn, rough timber that are usually about 3 m long and as straight as possible. They are 3 mm thick and 25 mm wide, and are used for reinforcement and for fixing the casts. Because they are likely to be very dry, they are best kept soaked in a long water trough to stop the water from the plaster being sucked out and also to stop the laths from twisting when they become wet. This movement could twist the cast and lead to possible cracking of the face. Bearers in moulds are made from (wood) lath. ALAN MASON31

32 2 ND SET of Questions Q. What is the reinforcement is used in plaster casts: A. Q. What is canvas made of: A. Q. What material is used for thinning shellac: A. Q. What is the name of the bug from which shellac is produced: A. Q. Glue size is used in casting as a: A. Q. Alum is used in casting as: A. Q. What is raw linseed oil used as: A. Q. What will tallow prevent and what is it made of: A. Q. Bearers in moulds are made from............ lath. ALAN MASON32

33 2 ND SET Questions Q. What is the reinforcement is used in plaster casts: A. Canvas (hessian) Q. What is canvas made of: A. Fibre Q. What material is used for thinning shellac: A. Metylated Spirit Q. What is the name of the bug from which shellac is produced: A. Lac bug (Laccifer Lacca) Q. Glue size is used in casting as a: A. Retarder. Q. Alum is used in casting as: A. An accelerator Q. What is raw linseed oil used as: A. releasing agent (allowing casts to be removed) Q. What will tallow prevent and what is it made of: A. Plaster sticking to the bench/ animal Fat Q. Bearers in moulds are made from............ lath. ALAN MASON33 WOOD

34 RUBBER MOULDS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MJ9lgZ3V 90o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MJ9lgZ3V 90o ALAN MASON34

35 Material for moulding techniques Re-meltable Vinyl Mould Rubber, often known as Vinamold or Gelflex. This material is used where the mould is not required for long service and so can be reused many times. It's main disadvantages are:- The pattern or "plug" that is to be moulded has to be able to stand the temperature (130 oC) of the rubber. (porous objects tend to blow bubbles). Also it requires a temperature controlled melting pot ALAN MASON35 Remeltable Vinyl Rubber

36 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) This is a material made from vinyl resins known to fibrous plasterers as ‘rubber’, and also called hot melt compound or HMC. It comes in different types of flexible grades, and each grade is a different colour to make it easier to see the difference. It is melted down in a machine at temperatures ranging from 120 to 170°C. The main problem with PVC is its high temperature, as this can affect some models: air may be released from a model which has not been fully sealed, and these air bubbles will form holes in the rubber that will produce bumps on the casts from the mould. There are two types of rubber moulding HOT & COLD ALAN MASON36

37 Advantages (HMC) Does not lose its flexibility Less likely to tear Can be remelted and reused No mixing of different materials is required Convenient for one off casts ALAN MASON37

38 Disadvantages (HMC) Expensive melting equipment is required Materials are dangerous when hot extreme temperatures Toxic fumes Your are not guaranteed a good standard of pour every time ALAN MASON38

39 A mould being poured with cold pour ALAN MASON39

40 Cold pour moulding compound A Flexible silicone rubber. Stored in sealed metal containers called blast storage bin Its shelf life is about 6 months Cold pour consists of 2 chemical materials that have to be weighed, measured and mixed. One is liquid form and acts as a catalyst so the correct hardening and setting process takes place ALAN MASON40

41 The advantages of cold pour are: The mould does not lose its flexibility The mould will not easily tear No expensive equipment is needed and can be used on site Almost a perfect pour every time if the preparation is done correctly Will reproduce far better details from originals than PVC Many more casts can be made from cold pour than PVC before it ALAN MASON41

42 The disadvantages of cold pour are: Expensive to use because it cannot be cut up and reused You must be able to weigh the materials accurately and measure out Carefully to get the right mix Requires special storage because they are potentially dangerous chemicals. ALAN MASON42

43 ALAN MASON43

44 Discussion of advantages and disadvantages ALAN MASON44

45 Making a flood mould Flood moulds are flexible and ideal for small repeated casts One gauge casting is used when casting small items. They are made of material known as rubber(vinyl resins) They are also called hot melt compound or HMC It comes in different grades and colours It is melted down in temperatures of 120 to 170 degrees C ALAN MASON45

46 Method of taking a cast from a flood mould Set up you equipment and materials Ensure your mould is clean otherwise this will create imperfections on the cast. Remember casting plaster sets within 15 minutes you need to be organised Cut your canvas to size allowing an over lap to turn inwards Cut the laths to size and soak in a trough Set up 2 buckets of water one for mixing, one for washing out 46ALAN MASON

47 Firstings Put clean water into a mixing bowl Add the casting plaster let a few handful just soak in the mix with you hands Using a splash brush apply a thin coat painted to the surface of the mould Next splash the plaster on again using the brush covering any traces of the mould ensuring the face is covered This mix is called the FIRSTINGS Clean the mould edge, never use sharp instruments 47ALAN MASON

48 Seconds The firstings will become shiny, when first applied, then it will become matt when it is beginning to set Mix the Seconds apply a thin coat over the cast then put on the canvas reinforcement lay on the laths and cover them with canvas also. These laths are classed as bearers to support the cast and are made of wood. The reinforcement in plaster casts is placed in the second coat. Brush them over with casting plaster and ensure the laths and canvas are not proud of the mould. This allows the mould to sit flat on the surface it is to be mounted on. 48ALAN MASON

49 Next splash on the remaining of the mix to cover the canvas and laths using the splash brush this gives an even and lighter cast When casting in plaster the two coats are named firstings and seconds Clean around the edges of the mould and leave to set. Clean your tools and area Once set and the cast has become hot then cold you can now release the cast from the flexible mould 49ALAN MASON

50 Skull A rubber mould can be made of this skull and used many times before being re-melted. Make the skull in our workshop. This flood mould is a small item and can be cast in one gauge. 50ALAN MASON

51 Cement casting There are three methods for casting in Portland cement: 1 Pressed semi-dry casting method in a rigid reverse piece mould. 2 Wet casting method in a rigid reverse piece mould. 3 Wet casting method in a flexible mould. The advantage with the semi-dry technique is, that it is far and away the fastest, as a cast takes 20 to 30 minutes. When a cement cast is consolidated this means, it has been made more dense. It is recommended to use ordinary Portland cement (OPC) for this purpose Cast decorations in plaster, gypsum or cement on facades 51ALAN MASON

52 Cement casting Wet casting 1. Making of a negative casting flood mould in, rubber. 2. The most common type of flood mould is open backed, only with decorations on the three sides - plus possibly top and bottom. 3. The casting mass, Portland Cement, is poured into the casting mould. Steel reinforcement and Irons or other systems for mounting are fastened in the wet and soft material. 4. A wet cast demands a day in the mould to harden. 5. After the hardening the cast element is removed carefully from the casting mould and at this stage, Cement casts are cured by immersion in water. Wet casting with Portland Cement in flexible reverse moulds:

53 3 RD Set of Questions Q. The reinforcement in plaster casts is placed in which section of the procedure: A. Q. What are the names of the two coats of plaster when casting: A. Q. The laths, classed as bearers to support the cast and are made of: A. Q. There are two types of material used for flood moulds: A. Q. Flood moulds are used because they are: A. Q. Flood moulds are used to cast: A. Q. One gauge casting means: A. ALAN MASON53

54 3 RD Set of Questions Q. The reinforcement in plaster casts is placed in which section of the procedure: A. The second coat. Q. What are the names of the two coats of plaster when casting: A. Firstings and seconds Q. The laths, classed as bearers to support the cast and are made of: A. Wood. Q. There are two types of material used for flood moulds: A. Hot and cold moulding material. Q. Flood moulds are used because they are: A. Flexible Q. Flood moulds are used to cast: A. Small repeat items Q. One gauge casting means: A. Casting small items. ALAN MASON54

55 Method of taking a cast from a mould Set up your -------------------- and ----------------------- Ensure your mould is ----------------- otherwise this will create imperfections on the ------------ Remember casting plaster sets within ------ minutes you need to be organised Cut your --------- to size allowing an over lap to turn inwards Cut the ------------ to size and soak in a trough Set up ----- buckets of water one for ---------, one for washing out Equipment, 2, mixing, cast, materials, laths, 15, clean, canvas 55ALAN MASON

56 Put clean water into a mixing bowl Add the ----------- plaster let a few handfuls just ------- --- in the mix with you hands Using a --------- brush apply a thin coat painted to the surface of the mould Next splash the plaster on again using the ---------- covering any traces of the ---------- ensuring the face is covered This mix is called the -----------------. Clean the mould edge, never use -------------- instruments Mould, casting, soak, brush, splash, sharp, Firstlings 56ALAN MASON

57 The --------------------- will become shiny, when first applied, then it will become ------- when it is beginning to set Mix the ----------- apply a thin coat over the --------- then put on the ------------ reinforcement lay on the laths and cover them with canvas also. These laths are classed as bearers to support the cast and are made of wood. The reinforcement in plaster casts is placed in the second coat. Brush them over with casting ------------ and ensure the laths and canvas are not ------------of the mould. This allows the mould to sit ----------- on the surface it is to be mounted on. Matt, flat, firstlings, seconds, canvas, plaster, cast, proud 57ALAN MASON

58 Next splash on the remaining of the mix to cover the --------- and laths using the splash brush this gives an even and lighter cast Clean around the ---------of the mould and leave to set. Clean your --------- and -------- Once set and the cast has become ----- then cold you can now ---------------- the cast from the ------------- mould flexible, canvas, edges, release, hot,area, tools 58ALAN MASON

59 59

60 http://www.teachers- direct.co.uk/resources/quiz -busters/quiz-busters- game.aspx?game_id=21786 ALAN MASON60

61 FINISH ALAN MASON61

62 Construction of running moulds ALAN MASON62

63 Construction of running moulds There are a variety of different ways of constructing running moulds, but we will look here at the method of constructing a simple panel mould for running straight and circular mouldings, and at the running mould required for forming a cornice reverse running mould. This method can be used for constructing most running moulds: only very small additions are required for other running moulds. ALAN MASON63

64 Template  The template of the profile is made from the zinc or steel sheet.  The profile shape can be drawn on paper and glued onto the zinc.  Cut around the zinc by using a pair of snips.  Place the template into a vice and, using files, file down to the profile line.  Always check your lines and do not go beyond them.  When you have filed up, a good check is to lay the profile onto an original drawing and make sure it matches.  When you have finished filing the shape, file off the burr at the back of the template and, using a piece of wet and dry paper or nail, remove all the file marks left on the metal.  If these file lines are not removed they will show on your finished moulding run. ALAN MASON64

65 Construction of running moulds Stock This is made from timber, and supports the soft zinc and stops it from bending during the running. Lay the profile onto the stock and draw around it with a pencil. Then redraw a pencil line following the template outline back about 5 mm. Then, using a saw and a coping saw, cut the wood out to this second line. The back edge of the stock should be splayed away; this can be done with a rasp. The splaying away stops the wood collecting the plaster or getting in front of the template. ALAN MASON65

66 Horse or slipper & Hand brace Horse or slipper This is the same height as the stock but 1½ times the length. It supports the stock, which is fixed to it at right angles with nails or a housing joint. This slipper will run along the running rule that is fixed to the bench. Hand brace This is fixed to the horse and slipper and helps to keep it firm. Some larger running moulds need two hand braces. The furthest point away from the slipper is called the ‘nib’, and if this moves too much it will cause chattering. The mould will need to be braced against this movement because, the larger the moulding, the more swell there will be in the plaster upon setting. ALAN MASON66

67 Circular running moulds A circular running mould is used for forming circular mouldings. The construction of this mould is very similar to straight moulds. In fact, you only slightly change your straight running mould to produce one. All you need to do is take a piece of wood called a gig stick, slightly longer than the radius of the circle required, and nail it on top of the stock and hand brace. Another way of forming this type of mould is to use an extended stock. The gig stick or extended stock should reach from the slipper to beyond the turning point. On the underside of the gig stick or extended stock, a piece of metal (called the turning eye) should be fixed with a hole in it about the size of a 50 mm nail at the radius distance. This will allow the running mould to rotate. The gig stick should be in line with the template face. ALAN MASON67 Wad – a piece of canvas soaked in plaster which forms an extremely strong fixing

68 Running out a simple panel mould  The running out of this type of moulding is the same method as for the running out of any moulding. It is only the size that changes.  1. First repair any damage and hollows in the bench by using casting plaster and a joint rule. The bench should be slightly wetted before making good. When the plaster has set and dried out, give the bench three coats of shellac.  2. Grease the bench well, including the running rule and running mould.  3. Mark with a pencil the length of moulding you need to run out on the running rule.  4. Along the run length, put a nail at the highest point of the template, in the bench. This is to stop the moulding slipping off as it begins to swell. Use either a headless nail or one with a small head, over which should be a piece of clay in the shape of a pyramid to help with easy release of the plaster from the nail at the finish of the run. ALAN MASON68

69  5. Now you will need to mix up your plaster. The amount of plaster you need depends on the size of the moulding. Put clean water into a bowl and sprinkle plaster into the bowl until it is just below the surface of the water. Allow it to soak for a couple of minutes. Grease up your arms and hands using barrier cream and mix up the plaster making sure that there are no lumps.  6. At the bench, pour a small amount of plaster along the length of the run. Take your running mould and, with the template facing the direction you are going, stand in front of it at right angles to the bench. With your left hand holding the nib and resting on the bench and your right handholding the hand brace, walk backwards pulling the running mould. Your left hand will feed the plaster back into the running and will push it into the running rule. Your right hand does the pulling. Hold a bowl at the end of the run for catching the unused plaster. This can now be used again and cuts down on waste. ALAN MASON69

70  7.Repeat the process, adding more plaster each time, building up to match the profile. It will be necessary to clean the running mould in between runs by using a small tool or an old piece of lath.  8. When the plaster becomes too old, re-mix another mix for finishing off. This mix needs to be a bit wetter.  9. Once you have reached a good quality of finish, clean down the bench with a joint rule and saw the plaster to the required length. If the bench is well greased, the moulding can be slid across the bench, or use a gauging trowel to slide along the length of the moulding to release it from the bench. The moulding can now be lifted on its edge to the storage area. ALAN MASON70

71 ALAN MASON71

72 Running out a simple panel mould  The running out of this type of............... is the same method as for the running out of any moulding. It is only the..... that changes.  1. First repair any damage and hollows in the bench by using................... and a............. The bench should be slightly wetted before making good. When the plaster has set and dried out, give the bench three coats of............  2.............the bench well, including the running rule and running............  3. Mark with a pencil the length of moulding you need to run out on the...................  4. Along the run length, put a...... at the highest point of the.............., in the bench. This is to stop the moulding slipping off as it begins to......... Use either a headless nail or one with a small head, over which should be a piece of...... in the shape of a............. to help with easy release of the plaster from the nail at the finish of the run. ALAN MASON72 moulding size casting plaster joint rule shellac Grease mould running rule nailtemplate clay pyramid swell

73  5. Now you will need to mix up your plaster. The amount of plaster you need depends on the....... of the moulding. Put clean water into a........ and.............. plaster into the bowl until it is just below the............. of the water. Allow it to soak for a couple of minutes. Grease up your arms and hands using...................... and mix up the plaster making sure that there are no...........  6. At the bench,........ a small amount of plaster along the length of the run. Take your......................... and, with the............... facing the direction you are going, stand in........ of it at right........... to the bench. With your left hand holding the.... and resting on the bench and your right hand holding the hand.........., walk backwards pulling the running mould. Your left hand will........ the plaster back into the running and will push it into the..................... Your right hand does the pulling. Hold a bowl at the end of the run for.............. the unused plaster. This can now be used again and....... down on........... ALAN MASON73 bowl sprinkle surface barrier cream lumpssize pour running mould template front angles nib brace feed running rule catching cuts waste

74  7.Repeat the process, adding more plaster each time, building up to match the........... It will be necessary to......... the running mould in between........ by using a small tool or an old piece of lath.  8. When the plaster becomes too....., re-mix another mix for finishing off. This mix needs to be a bit..........  9. Once you have reached a good........... of finish,........ down the bench with a joint......... and saw the plaster to the required........... If the bench is well..........., the moulding can be slid across the bench, or use a............. trowel to slide along the length of the moulding to........... it from the bench. The moulding can now be lifted on its....... to the............. area. ALAN MASON74 profile cleanruns old wetter quality clean joint rule length greased release edge storage gauging

75 ALAN MASON75 The ornate centre piece base is formed The semi-circular cornice section is run insitu

76 Making a reverse cornice running mould The construction of this running mould is the same as the panel mould described on previous slides. Note the difference in the template and the use of an additional brace for the cornice running mould. ALAN MASON76 Running mould for a reverse cornice mould Back of stock splayed back

77 FINISH ALAN MASON77

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81 ALAN MASON81 Internal mitre Running a reverse mould The finished cast taken from the reverse mould.

82 ALAN MASON82 The ceiling stripped back to the timber "split lathing"


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