Issue Conclusion Premise Cogency Review Exercise 2-3? Do miracles occur? Miracles occur in the world. There are events that occur in the world that are not explained by physical and natural laws or scientific theories. Therefore, miracles occur in the world. It is safe to say that miracles occur in the world because most people believe in God and believe God can and does cause events that are not bound by physical and natural laws.
Deductive Premises demonstrate or prove the conclusion. Validity: It isn’t possible for the premise to be true and the conclusion to be false. Soundness: The premise is true and argument is valid. Review Exercise 2-4. Inductive Premises support the conclusion. Support happens in degrees: probability & strong vs. weak arguments. We have to evaluate the weight of the support (BOC & IBE).
Universal Premises All, every, nothing, none, always, never, etc. All college students use drugs. Steve is a college student. Therefore, Steve uses drugs. Valid? Sound? Certain? Exercise 2-12? Qualified Premises Some, sometimes, usually, seldom, often, etc. 75% of college students use drugs. Steve is a college student. Steve likely uses drugs. Probable? Certain? Exercise 2-14?
Of course Jane is a US citizen. She voted in the last Fortuna City Council election. Jane voted in the last Fortuna City Council election. Therefore, Jane is a US citizen. What is the unstated premise? To be enrolled in Philosophy 1 at CR, a student must have satisfied the prerequisite of English 1A. Jerry is enrolled in Philosophy 1 at CR. What’s the unstated conclusion?
Murderers are human beings. CR students are human beings. Therefore, CR students are murderers. Valid? Sound? CR students who smoke on campus outside of designated smoking areas are evil. George smokes on campus but not in the designated smoking areas. Unstated conclusion? Valid? Sound?
Assigning relative value to considerations. The homeless people who hang out on the plaza in Arcata discourage people from patronizing businesses, and the residents of Arcata do not like the presence of homeless. Therefore, police should begin sweeping the homeless of the plaza.
Given competing explanations of phenomena, go with the one that Explains most adequately. Leads to most accurate predictions. Conflicts least with well- established explanations. Involves fewest assumptions. Oh my God! I just found $20! I must be doing something the gods/God/karma approves of? Oh my God! I just found $20! Someone must have dropped it and I happened to find it. I’m a star athlete or award-winning actor/singer or wealthy business exec, and I’d like to thank God for believing in me and granting me this success. I’m good at what I do, and I live in a time and place that values what I’m good at.
An argument demonstrates the truth of a proposition. An argument is not an attempt to persuade someone to believe something. Rhetoric, logical fallacies, and other dirty tricks are used to generate acceptance of a proposition by means other than logic and rationality. “Voting Age Should be Raised Even Higher” Not long ago, we wisely allowed voting only after age 21. In those days, people matured far more quickly than they do today. Since then, the SAT scores have gone down, and crime and other social ills have increased. If anything, the voting age should have been raised, not lowered. This era’s spoiled, immature, self- absorbed youth should be deterred from voting. If they don’t have the energy or interest to vote, stay away from the polls. Thankfully, most young people know intuitively they aren’t ready to vote—hence the low turnout. Patrick M. Flynn, Scottsdale
Identify 3 arguments (conclusion + premise). What should be believe and why should we believe this?