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Step 1 Conduct training needs analysis Adapted from T. C. Parker, “Statistical Methods for Measuring Training Results,” in Training and Development Handbook,

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Presentation on theme: "Step 1 Conduct training needs analysis Adapted from T. C. Parker, “Statistical Methods for Measuring Training Results,” in Training and Development Handbook,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Step 1 Conduct training needs analysis Adapted from T. C. Parker, “Statistical Methods for Measuring Training Results,” in Training and Development Handbook, 2 nd ed., ed. R. L. Craig (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976). Copyright  1976. Used by permission. ~ Overall Training Model ~ Step 3 Review available training methods Design/select training methods Step 4 Design training evaluation approach Step 5 Develop training objectives Step 2 Implement training program Step 6 Measure training results Step 7

2 Organizational Analysis (Where is training needed?) Identification of deficits (e.g., skill-based, attitudinal) Introduction of new technology, procedures, systems Address staffing needs (e.g., strategic planning efforts, projected personnel needs) Task Analysis (What needs to be trained?) Use of job analysis information (e.g., specific tasks and/or KSAs to be trained) Person Analysis (Who needs to be trained?) Use of performance appraisal information (objective and subjective data) to help determine employee strengths and weaknesses Needs Analysis

3 Training Objectives Best if objectives are: Specific (regarding what needs to be learned) Measurable (regarding how will learning be assessed) Sequenced for optimal learning Consistent with the organization’s needs, goals, and capabilities (e.g., resources)

4 Basic Learning Principles 1) Practice (opportunity to apply what is learned during training to the job) 2) Feedback (best if it is specific and immediate) 3) Reinforcement (use of desired rewards for “proper” performance) 4) Transfer of Training (e.g., transfer what is learned back to the job)

5 “Hands-on” Training Methods On-The-Job Training (OJT) One of the most frequently used training methods (especially with regard to skill acquisition) Training is specific to the job tasks (e.g., use of actual tools, equipment, procedures) Easy transfer of training back to the job Training is dependent on the skill/knowledge and time availability and motivation level of the trainer Often unstructured regarding such things as: what is taught, how things are taught, the timing and sequencing of what is taught, and the time spent (focus) on what is taught Difficult to determine when, or if, mastery of skills has been achieved Vestibule Training (Conducting training sessions on actual job equipment in an area away from the job site) No damage to equipment, or stoppage of processes, if mistakes are made Allows the observation of employees performance in a controlled environment before they are allowed to work on actual job equipment Easy transfer of training back to the job Sometimes used as an assessment of ability during a probationary period

6 “Hands-on” Training Methods (cont) Job Rotation (or Cross-Training) Employees can perform more that one set of job tasks (allows for easier coverage of jobs in case of absences) Employees are more able to assist others in specific job duties Difficult to match employees skills and abilities to one job, let alone several jobs Jobs usually need to be relatively similar in the KSAs that they require Apprentice Training (Learn job skills from a qualified employee across time)

7 Information Presentation Training Methods 1) Lectures Relevant to groups of various sizes Difficult to tailor to individual needs 2) Workshops/Seminars/Conferences Transfer of training can be problematic 3) Audio-visual (e.g., videotapes, CDs, DVDs, films, slide presentations) Ensures consistency of content and presentation Some methods are not easily revised (e.g., costly) After initial cost of production, relatively cheap to use Allows the review of performance Videos are difficult to modify Making videos can be quite expensive 4) Computer-Based Instruction (or Computer Assisted Instruction) and Web-Based Training Can be individually tailored to match individual needs or ability level (& individualized assessment possible) Use of realistic graphics Assessment and feedback can be provided quickly

8 Simulations 1) Behaviorally-based (e.g., flight simulator training, police officer training) Computer-based, physical equipment Permits practice and the introduction of events, obstacles, situations Saves training time Allows the review and evaluation of performance 2) Role Playing (individual or group) Types of training include assertiveness, conflict resolution (e.g., customer complaints), sales approaches Evaluate performance and provide feedback Actual behavior and performance assessment can be unstructured 3) Simulation Exercises (e.g., Assessment Center-type) 4) Behavior Role Modeling Observe proper behavior Perform behavior Receive feedback regarding performance of behavior Receive reinforcement for proper behavior Have an opportunity to practice behavior on the job if feasible (transfer of training)

9 ~ Recent Training Topics ~ Cultural Diversity Training >>> Increasing importance due to changing workplace demographics (e.g., more minorities, older workers, individuals with disabilities); globalization Some Basic Training Goals ~ Awareness of biases, assumptions Appreciation of differences Some Training Components ~ Surveys Case studies, videos Games Role-playing exercises (e.g., conflict resolution, problem solving, cooperative tasks, decision making) Sensitivity training Discussions Some Intended Outcomes ~ Improve culture, climate More effective teamwork; productivity Better communication Reduction of legal challenges Less turnover Enhanced company image


11 ~ Sample Ageism Scale Items ~ Most old people get set in their ways and are unable to change It is foolish to claim that wisdom somes with old age Most old people tend to let their homes become shabby and unattractive Most old people spend too much time prying into the affairs of others and giving unsought advice Most old people should be more concerned with their personal appearance; they’re too untidy If old people expect to be liked, their first step is to try to get rid of their irritating faults Old people have too much power in business and politics Most old people make me feel ill at ease

12 ~ Some Attitudes Towards Women Scale Items ~ The initiation of dating should come mostly from a man. Intoxication among women is worse that intoxication among men. The satisfaction of a husband’s sexual desire is a fundamental obligation of every wife. Women should be as free to initiate marriage as men. The intellectual leadership of a community should largely be in the hands of men. Swearing and obscenity is more repulsive in the speech of a woman than a man. Women should worry less about their rights and more about becoming good wives and mothers. A wife should make every effort to minimize irritation and inconvenience in the male head of the family.


14 Population, Persons 16 and over, by Race and Sex, 1997 and 2007 Racial Group 1997 2007 % Increase Total Population 203,133,000 231,867,000 14.1 White women:87,417,000 96,180,000 10.5 White men:82,577,000 92,073,000 11.5 Black women:13,241,000 15,124,000 14.2 Black men:10,763,000 12,361,000 14.8 Hispanic women:9,953,000 15,229,000 53.0 Hispanic men:10,368,000 16,154,000 55.8 Asian women:Not available 5,581,000 ----- Asian men:Not available 5,052,000 ----- Source:

15 Mentoring Programs MentorProtege Mentor teaches a protégé how to perform specific tasks; develop within the organization; grow as a person How should the mentor and protégé be paired? Assigned versus non-assigned Cross-gender/race versus same gender/race

16 Sexual Harassment Awareness Questions (True or False) If a consensual relationship already existed between two employees, then no grounds exist for sexual harassment An employee must follow a company’s sexual harassment complaint procedure before filing a suit of harassment A company is not liable for harassment that occurs outside of the work environment An organization can be responsible for harassment of its customers/clients The law protects men against sexual harassment by females A company that takes immediate corrective action regarding harassment is less likely to be found liable for the violation A company that has a written policy against sexual harassment has little to worry about in terms of legal liability If a female employee engages in consensual sex with a male superior, it is not sexual harassment F F F T T F F F

17 Sexual Harassment Types 1) Quid Pro Quo (sex as a condition of employment or basis for employment decisions) 2)Environmental harassment (behavior of a sexual nature that is unwelcome and that unreasonably interferes with one’s work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile, or repressive work environment) Key Points View the totality of the circumstances (e.g., nature of the relationship, nature of the sexual advances, context in which the behaviors occurred) Examine the evidence on a case by case basis Behavior is potentially illegal if the organization “knew or should have known” of sexual behavior Sources of harassment Supervisors (company responsibility; agent of the company) Co-workers (corrective action) Clients (extent of company control) ~ Sexual Harassment ~

18 ~ Sexual Harassment Training ~ 1)Establish a written policy prohibiting harassment Define sexual harassment Outline complaint procedures Ensure confidentiality of complaints Guarantee protection of those who complain Outline disciplinary action against harassers Tie policy to mission statement of organization Training Program Components a) Introduction and support from top management Establish a shared understanding & agreement regarding acceptable and unacceptable behavior Mandatory attendance (management and non- management personnel)

19 Sexual Harassment Training (cont.) b)Definition of sexual harassment Use of scenarios, vignettes Role playing Group discussion exercises c) Communicate nature and extent of the problem d) Explain individual, institutional, and legal solutions

20 Sexual Harassment Training (cont.) 3)Establish effective complaint procedures a) Have multiple designated officials to whom complaints can be made b) Train designated officials in “intake” and investigative interviews c) Train 1 st line supervisors (crucial) Selection interview Orientation Performance appraisals d)Develop complaint process Stop harassment immediately (if exists) Address victim’s needs Discipline harasser (if necessary)

21 ~ Vignettes ~ 1.A group of male sales representatives come to see you. They say they no longer want to be sent on out-of-town assignments with female colleagues because they are afraid of sexual harassment charges. Do you assure the men they don’t have to travel with women? Tell the men their fears are groundless? Arrange for a sexual harassment training session? Call a department meeting to discuss the matter? 2.Barb just lost a lot of weight. She starts coming to work in very short, tight skirts and clinging tops. Do you ask nothing? Call Barb in to tell her to dress more appropriately? Send Barb a memo asking her to dress more appropriately? 3.XYZ Company is your biggest account. The buyer has been making unwelcome sexual advances to several women in your office. Do you ask the women to ignore it? Tell the buyer not to come back? Tell the buyer to change his behavior? Call the buyer’s boss?

22 4.Ann, a female supervisor, has recently complained to management about the ongoing sexual advances and innuendo to which she is exposed on the plant floor. The Plant Manager reminded her that she was informed about this climate before she accepted her position. She has been told that she is going to have to be more assertive and learn to deal with this if she expects to keep her job. 5.Richard and Janet have worked together for several years. Richard grabbed Janet’s behind when she was drinking from the water fountain. When Janet objected, Richard apologized and has never repeated this behavior again. Vignettes (cont.)

23 ~ Training Evaluation Criteria ~ 1) Reaction criteria (e.g., via Participant Reaction Forms) Assessment of how participants felt about the training program (e.g., adequacy of content coverage, usefulness of material, how material was delivered) 2)Learning criteria (assessment of what was learning immediately following training) 3) Behavioral criteria (did learning that occurred during training transfer back to the job) 4) Results criteria (did the training lead to positive organizational outcomes e.g., increased profit, better output, less injuries/accidents)

24 ~ Measuring Training Effectiveness ~ 1) Did any change occur? 2) Was the change due to training? (Internal validity) 3) Was the change consistent with the organization’s goals? 4) Can the change that occurred generalize to other people and locations? (External validity)

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