1 Knowledge Objectives 1.Explain what human resource management involves. 2.Identify and briefly explain the steps in employee selection and performance.
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1 Knowledge Objectives 1.Explain what human resource management involves. 2.Identify and briefly explain the steps in employee selection and performance appraisal. 3.Explain how managers can be more effective interviewers. 4.Identify protected classes and the basis for a claim of disparate treatment or disparate impact
2 Human Resource Strategy: A People-Centered Approach Human Resource Management (HRM) –The proactive acquisition, retention, and development of human capital necessary to build and support organizational capabilities. Human Capital –All present and future workforce participants who need to develop to their full potential as valuable assets to organizations.
3 Recruitment and Selection –“Getting the right people on the bus.” –Recruiting for diversity Goal is to generate a pool of qualified applicants through many different sources that are demographically representative of the population at large. –Networking appears to be the most successful method for job seekers. Human Resource Strategy: A People-Centered Approach
4 The Selection Process: An Overview –Steps in the PROCEED model Prepare Review Organize Conduct Evaluate Exchange Decide Human Resource Strategy: A People-Centered Approach
5 Job analysis –The process of identifying basic task and skill requirements for a specific job by studying superior performers. Job description –A concise document that outlines the role expectations and skill requirements for a specific job. Human Resource Strategy: A People-Centered Approach
6 Recruitment and Selection Employment Selection Tests –Any procedures used in the employment decision process such as Pencil-and-paper tests Unscored application forms Informal and formal interviews Performance tests Physical, education, or experience requirements –Tests must be unbiased, statistically valid, and reliable predictors of job success.
7 Recruitment and Selection (cont’d) Effective Interviewing –Interviews are the most common selection tool. –Shortcomings of unstructured interviews Highly susceptible to distortion and bias. Highly susceptible to legal attack. Legally indefensible if contested. Apparent but no real validity. Not totally job-related and possibly invasive of privacy. Highly inconsistent in application as selection tool. Subject to interviewer bias (e.g., cultural bias). No feedback about selection errors.
8 Effective Interviewing (cont’d) –Structured interviews: a set of job-related questions with standardized answers. –Question types used in structured Interviews Situational Job knowledge Job sample simulation Worker requirements Behavioral Interviewing –Asking detailed questions about specific behavior in past job-related situations. Recruitment and Selection (cont’d)
9 Performance Appraisal –Evaluating individual job performance as basis for making objective personnel decisions. Making Performance Appraisals Legally Defensible –Use job analysis to develop the appraisal system. –Check that the appraisal system is behavior- oriented, not trait-oriented. –Have evaluators follow specific written instructions when conducting appraisals. –Have evaluators review results with the ratees.
10 Performance Appraisal (cont’d) Alternative Performance Appraisal Techniques –Goal setting (MBO) –Graphic rating scales Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) –Weighted checklists –Rankings and comparisons (Forced distribution - most often encountered) –Multirater appraisals/360-degree review
11 Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) –EEO and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 In virtually all aspects of employment, it is unlawful to discriminate on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, age, national origin, disability, or veteran status. –Affirmative Action A plan for actively seeking out, employing, and developing the talents of those groups traditionally discriminated against in employment. Human Resource Strategy: A People-Centered Approach
12 From Affirmative Action to Managing Diversity –The objective is to develop an appreciation of interpersonal differences and to create a dominant heterogeneous culture. Accommodating The Needs of People with Disabilities –Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) Requires employers to make reasonable accommodations to the needs of present and future employees with physical and mental disabilities. Human Resource Strategy: A People-Centered Approach
13 Contemporary Human Resource Challenges and Problems Discouraging Sexual Harassment –Sexual harassment: unwanted attention that creates an offensive or intimidating work environment. Unwanted physical contact Gestures, displays, joking, and language –It is the manager’s job to be aware of and to correct cases of harassment. Ignorance of such activity is not a valid legal defense.
14 Contemporary Human Resource Challenges and Problems (cont’d) Discouraging Sexual Harassment (cont’d) –What can the victim do? Live with it Fight back Complain to higher-ups Find another job Sue their employer
15 Discouraging Sexual Harassment (cont’d) –What can the organization do? Garner top-management commitment to eliminate sexual harassment. Issue a clear sexual harassment policy statement. Provide appropriate awareness training. Establish a grievance procedure for reporting incidents of harassment. Contemporary Human Resource Challenges and Problems (cont’d)