Presentation on theme: "Latin American Revolutions Viva la revoluciones vatos!"— Presentation transcript:
Latin American Revolutions Viva la revoluciones vatos!
Causes of Mexican Independence Liberalism –Political thoughts spread from U.S. –Home Rule but not independence Economics –Mercantilism Creoles desire free trade –Taxation To pay for the war between Spain and Britain. –Falling Wages Increased labor forced wages down
Causes of Mexican Independence Need for land reform –Peninsulares and Creoles own most of the land and water rights. –Indians and Hispanics (castas) are tenant farmers.
Causes of Mexican Independence Class relations –Peninsulares held the best jobs, Church positions, army posts and trade monopolies. –Creoles had wealth, education and culture, but no power. –Indians and Hispanics lacked land, had water rights taken and were reduced to a labor supply.
Independence Movement “Insurgency” (1810) a revolt of tenant farmers and “Indians” against the privileged land owning class. Mexican Viceroy (governor), Iturrigaray, grants rights to Creoles, he is immediately overthrown by the Peninsulares. Creoles, led by Father Hidalgo, join and organize the “Insurgency.”
Independence Movement Father Hidalgo announces social program –Abolish Indian (natives) tribute obligations (tax paid by Indians and mixed bloods) –Land redistribution (not enough to make masses happy, too much for Creoles) Creoles turn on Hidalgo and execute him. Morelos takes over Insurgent Army. –Uses Guerilla tactics –Abolish ethnic distinctions –Abolish tribute and communal treasuries –Abolish slavery –Division of large haciendas into smaller plots
Independence Movement Morelos fails to gain military victory, is captured and executed. Mexico was looking for a way out of anarchy. The Church supports the Royal Army led by Iturbide.
Independence Iturbide’s Program –Peace and Reconciliation –Guaranteed rights of landowners –Guaranteed rights of Church –Guaranteed rights of Peninsulares –Creoles, led by Guerrero, agree because it is their only chance to win.
Results of Independence (1821) The masses are ruthlessly repressed. The Church’s power is intact. Creoles and Peninsulares unify into one class.
Liberation of the Rest of South America
Led by Simón Bolivar starting in 1807 April 1810 Creoles force abdication of Captain General in Caracas. Factions among Creoles –Some fled to Cuba and Puerto Rico –Some want immediate independence –Some want to postpone independence
Liberation of the Rest of South America Miranda takes control of Patriot army Republican Congress in Venezuela –Abolish Indian tribute and fueros (special privileges) –Retains slavery –Catholicism the state religion –Limited the rights of citizenship to property owners (excluding mulatto property owners) Majority of people do not support either Republicans or Royalists
Liberation of the Rest of South America Miranda, losing because of an earthquake and Church propaganda, attempts to flee with Republican treasury, is captured by Bolivar who turns him over to the Spaniards. Bolivar continues revolution from Columbia. He gains support by giving advancement based on merit not background. Bolivar uses Columbians to drive Spaniards out of Venezuela and is declared “El Liberator” with dictatorial powers.
Liberation of the Rest of South America Republic’s policies alienated lower classes and refused freedoms for slaves so struggles continued. Llaneros (cowboys) turned against republic because of agrarian reforms. Their leader, Boves, destroyed the Second Republic forcing Bolivar back to Columbia. Spanish, winning territory, do not give rights to mixed bloods, causing them to lose support.
Liberation of the Rest of South America Bolivar, in exile in Jamaica, writes letter. Upon returning to Venezuela Bolivar gains support from patriot guerilla bands, the llanero (who left the Loyalists) and British merchants and soldiers living in South America.
Liberation of the Rest of South America At the Angostura Congress (1819) Bolivar presents a Constitution that: –Gives Bolivar dictatorial powers –Abolishes slavery –Distribution of land to soldiers –Presidency with royal powers –Hereditary Senate –Voting restricted to property owners
Liberation of the Rest of South America Combined llanero cavalry and infantry led by Bolivar defeats the Spaniards in the north. Revolution in Spain guarantees that further soldiers will not be sent into the fight.
Liberation of the Rest of South America Creoles in southern South America rose against the Spaniards. New government in Argentina promises: –Abolition of mita –Abolition of encomienda –Abolition of nobility –Aboliton of the Inquisition
Liberation of the Rest of South America Jose de San Martín –Chile’s Creole leader, Bernardo O’Higgins, had been defeated by Royalists. –San Martin Defeats Royalists in Chile Sails north to Peru and uses the fear of an Indian and slave revolt to force Royalists in Peru to surrender. He ends tribute and frees children of slaves. Places O’Higgins back in control. San Martin then meets with Bolivar
Bolivar Meets San Martin in Guayaquil, Peru Wants coast of Peru Wants Republican Oligarchy Assumes singular leadership of revolution in South America. Wants coast of Peru Wants monarchy Retires from public life and dies in obscurity in France. BolivarSan Martin What was said at this meeting remains a mystery.
Brazilian Independence Relatively bloodless
Causes of Brazilian Independence Napoleonic influence, flight of royal family Reaction to Portuguese policies of tightening political and economic control. Heavy taxes Monopoly on gold and diamonds Republican ideals
Independence? Portuguese court flees to Brazil Prince Regent Joao increased Brazil’s trade and industry making Brazil equal to Portugal. Cheap British goods swamp Brazil’s economy. Conflict between Mazombos (Creoles) and Reinois (Peninsulares)
Independence Revolution of 1820 in Portugal –Demands Prince return to Portugal –Demands return of mercantilist policy –Joao returns to Portuguese throne Dom Pedro remains as regent. –Advised to take control of revolutionary movement and crown himself IF there is a revolution. –The Cortez in Spain attempts to end reforms in Brazil and return Pedro to Portugal for “education.” –Pedro refuses to return (fico – “I Remain”) on Sept 7, 1822 he issues cry of Cry of Ipiranga (Independence or Death). By December he is Emperor of Brazil. –No Change except Brazilian Monarch and not Portugal.