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1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key. How to Use This Presentation

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation TransparenciesStandardized Test Prep Visual Concepts Resources Brain Food Video Quiz

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Resources and Energy Chapter 7 Table of Contents Section 1 Mineral Resources Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Section 3 Renewable Energy Section 4 Resources and Conservation

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Mineral Resources Chapter 7 Objectives Explain what ores are and how they form. Identify four uses for mineral resources Summarize two ways humans obtain mineral resources

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Mineral Resources Chapter 7 Mineral Resources Mineral resources can be either metals, such as gold, U, silver, Ag, and aluminum, Al, or nonmetals, such as sulfur, S, and quartz, SiO 2. Metals can be identified by their shiny surfaces, as good conductors of heat and electricity, and they tend to bend easily when in thin sheets. Most nonmetals have a dull surface and are poor conductors of heat and electricity.

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Mineral Resources Chapter 7 Ores ores a natural material whose concentration of economically valuable minerals is high enough for the material to be mined profitably Metallic minerals such as gold, silver, and copper, Cu, are called native elements and can exist in Earth’s crust as nuggets of pure metals. Most other minerals in Earth’s crust are compounds of two or more elements.

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Mineral Resources Chapter 7 Ores, continued Ores Formed by Cooling Magma Some ores, such as chromium, Cr; and nickel, Ni, form as the magma cools and the dense metallic minerals sink. As the minerals sink, layers of these minerals accumulate at the bottom of the magma chamber to form ore deposits. Ores Formed by Contact Metamorphism lode a mineral deposit within a rock formation.

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Mineral Resources Chapter 7 Ores, continued Ores Formed by Contact Metamorphism, continued Heat and chemical reactions with hot fluids from the magma can change the composition of the surrounding rock. This process is called. Some ores, such as copper, Cu; and zinc, Zn, form by contact metamorphism. Contact metamorphism also occurs when hot fluids called hydrothermal solutions move through small cracks in a large mass of rock. When the minerals from the surrounding rock dissolve into the hydrothermal solution, new minerals will precipitate from the solution and form narrow zones of rocks called veins.

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Mineral Resources Chapter 7 Ores, continued Ores Formed by Moving Water placer deposit a deposit that contains a valuable mineral that has been concentrated by mechanical action The movement of water helps to form ore deposits. Tiny fragments of native elements, such as gold, Au, are released from rock as it breaks down by weathering. Streams carry the fragments until the currents become too weak to carry these dense metals, which collect in placer deposits.

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Mineral Resources Chapter 7 Uses of Mineral Resources gemstones a mineral, rock, or organic material that can be used as jewelry or an ornament when it is cut and polished Metallic ores are sources of valuable minerals and elements, like gold, Au, platinum, Pt, and silver, Ag. Some nonmetallic minerals display extraordinary brilliance and color when they are specially cut for jewelry. Other nonmetallic minerals, such as calcite and gypsum, are used as building materials.

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Mineral Resources Chapter 7 Mineral Exploration and Mining During mineral exploration, people search for mineral deposits by studying local geology. Exploration teams also collect and test rock samples to determine whether the rock contains enough metals to make a mine profitable. Airplanes that carry special equipment are used to measure and identify patterns in magnetism, gravity, radioactivity, and rock color.

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Mineral Resources Chapter 7 Mineral Exploration and Mining, continued Subsurface Mining Subsurface mining mines for minerals located below Earth’s surface Surface Mining Surface mining strips overlying rock material to reveal mineral deposits that are located close to Earth’s surface. Placer Mining Placer mining scoop up and separate the sediment from placer deposits to search for minerals. Undersea Mining Nodules are lumps of minerals on the deep ocean floor. However, because of their location, these deposits are difficult to mine.

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Mineral Resources Chapter 7 The Formation of Ores and Placer Deposits The diagram below shows how ores form in placer deposits.

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Mineral Resources Chapter 7 Reading check Explain the relationship between carrying capacity and the amount of matter and energy in an ecosystem.

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Mineral Resources Chapter 7 Reading check, continued Explain the relationship between carrying capacity and the amount of matter and energy in an ecosystem. The amount of matter and energy in an ecosystem can supply a population of a given size. This maximum population is the carrying capacity of the ecosystem.

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 7 Comparing Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids Section 1 Mineral Resources

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Objectives Explain why coal is a fossil fuel. Describe how petroleum and natural gas form and how they are removed from Earth. Summarize the processes of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Explain how nuclear fission generates electricity

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Nonrenewable Energy nonrenewable resource a resource that forms at a rate that is much slower than the rate at which it is consumed Fossil Fuels fossil fuel a nonrenewable energy resource that formed from the remains of organisms that lived long ago; examples include oil, coal, and natural gas Much of the energy humans use every day comes from the burning of the hydrocarbons that make up fossil fuels. When hydrocarbons are burned, the breaking of chemical bonds releases energy as heat and light.

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Fossil Fuels Formation of Coal Coal is the most commonly burned fossil fuel, formed during a complex process called carbonization. Carbonization occurs when partially decomposed plant materials is buried in swamp mud and becomes peat. As bacteria consume some of the peat and release the gases methane, CH 4, and carbon dioxide, CO 2, the contents of peat gradually change until mainly carbon remains. Peat remains if conditions are not optimal for carbonization. Peat may be used as an energy source.

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Types of Coal The diagram below shows the different types of coal.

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Fossil Fuels, continued Types of Coal Deposits The partial decomposition of plant remains forms a brownish- black material called peat. Peat is buried by other sediment. As heat and pressure increase peat becomes lignite. Lignite is also called brown coal. Increased temperature and pressure compacts the lignite and forms bituminous coal. Bituminous coal is made of 80% carbon. Anthracite, the hardest form of coal, is produced when bituminous coal is under high temperatures and pressures. Anthracite coal is made of 90% carbon.

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Fossil Fuels, continued Formation of Petroleum and Natural Gas Petroleum and natural gas are mixtures of hydrocarbons. These fossil fuels formed when heat and pressure caused chemical changes to the remains of microorganisms and plants. Petroleum and Natural Gas Deposits Petroleum and natural gas are very important sources of energy for transportation, farming, and many other industries. They are mined from permeable sedimentary rocks. Petroleum accumulates beneath cap rock and fill the space to form an oil reservoir. Natural gas rises above petroleum, because it is less dense than both oil and water.

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Oil Traps The diagram below shows how oil becomes trapped under cap rock.

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Fossil Fuels, continued Oil Traps When a well is drilled into an oil reservoir, the petroleum and natural gas often flow to the surface. After the pressure of the overlying rock is removed, fluids rise up and out through the well.

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Fossil-Fuel Supplies Fossil fuels, like minerals, are one of the main sources of energy, but are also nonrenewable resources. Crude oil, or unrefined petroleum, is also used in the production of plastics, synthetic fabrics and rubber, medicines, waxes, chemical fertilizers, detergents, shampoos, and many other products. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel in the world. Two-thirds of the known deposits of coal occur in the United States, Russia, and China. Oil shale is a relatively abundant material that contains petroleum. But the cost of mining oil from shale is far greater than the present cost of recovering oil from other sedimentary rocks.

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Reading check What is cap rock?

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Reading check, continued What is cap rock? Cap rock is a layer of impermeable rock at the top of an oil or natural gas-bearing formation through which fluids cannot flow.

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Nuclear Energy The energy that is produced from nuclear reactions is called nuclear energy. Scientists discovered that atoms had smaller fundamental parts. These parts could be split by creating nuclear reactions with nuclear technologies.

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Nuclear Energy, continued Nuclear Fission nuclear fission the process by which the nucleus of a heavy atom splits into two or more fragments; the process releases neutrons and energy When the nucleus splits, it releases additional neutrons as well as energy. The newly released neutrons begin a chain reaction by striking nearby nuclei, which causes those nuclei to split and release more neutrons and more energy. If left uncontrolled, a fission reaction will escalate quickly and may result in an explosion. Controlled reactions produce heat that can be used to generate electricity.

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Reading check What causes a chain reaction during nuclear fission?

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Reading check, continued What causes a chain reaction during nuclear fission? As neutrons strike neighboring nuclei, the nuclei split and release additional neutrons that strike other nuclei and cause the chain to continue.

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Nuclear Energy, continued How Fission Generates Electricity A nuclear reactor is a specialized equipment in which controlled nuclear fission is carried out. Currently, uranium-235, or 235 U, is the only naturally occurring element used for nuclear fission. This ore is mined and processed into fuel pellets with high 235 U content. These uranium-enriched pellets are placed into rods to make fuel rods. Bundles of these fuel rods are then bombarded by neutrons to induce a nuclear reaction.

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Nuclear Energy, continued How Fission Generates Electricity, continued The resulting chain reaction from nuclear fission causes the fuel rods to become very hot. Water is pumped around the fuel rods to absorb and remove heat energy. The water is then pumped into a second circuit, where it becomes steam and turns the turbines that provide power for electric generators. A third water circuit carries away the excess heat and releases it into the environment.

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 A Nuclear Fission Reaction The diagram below shows how a nuclear fission reaction.

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Nuclear Energy, continued Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Fission Nuclear power plants burn no fossil fuels and produce no air pollution. However, they produce harmful radioactive materials that have very long half-lives, wastes must be stored for thousands of years. These waste products give off harmful doses of radiation that can destroy plant and animal cells and can cause harmful changes in the genetic material of living cells.ystem is a system in which both energy and matter are exchanged with the surroundings.

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy Chapter 7 Nuclear Energy, continued Nuclear Fusion nuclear fusion the process by which nuclei of small atoms combine to form new, more massive nuclei; the process releases energy All of the energy that reaches Earth from the sun is produced by nuclear fusion. Fusion reactions only occur at temperatures of more than 15,000,000°C. The only byproduct of fusion are helium nuclei, which are harmless to living cells.

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 7 Parts of a Nuclear Reactor Section 2 Nonrenewable Energy

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Renewable Energy Chapter 7 Objectives Explain how geothermal energy may be used as a substitute for fossil fuels Compare passive and active methods of harnessing energy from the sun Explain how water and wind can be harnessed to generate exlectiricty

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Renewable Energy Chapter 7 Geothermal Energy renewable resource a natural resource that can be replaced at the same rate at which the resource is consumed geothermal energy the energy produced by heat with Earth The resulting steam from water passing by nearby magma or hot gases related by magma, deep in the earth, produces a large amount of geothermal energy. Engineers and scientists have harnessed geothermal energy by drilling wells to reach the hot water. The steam and hot water are used as a source of heat and as sources of power to drive turbines, which generate electricity.

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Renewable Energy Chapter 7 Solar Energy solar energy the energy received by Earth from the sun in the form of radiation Solar energy can be converted to heat energy in many different ways. In a passive system, sunlight enters the house and warms the building materials, which stores some heat for the evening. An active system includes the use of solar collectors and photovoltaic cells to collect heat or convert solar energy into electricity.

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Renewable Energy Chapter 7 Energy from Moving Water hydroelectric energy electrical energy produced by the flow of water Moving water is one of the oldest sources of energy. Energy can be harnessed from the running water of rivers and streams or from ocean tides. Today, 11% of the electricity in the United States comes from hydroelectric power plants. At a hydroelectric plant, massive dams hold back running water and channel the water through the plant. Inside the plant, the water spins turbines, which turn generators to produce electricity.

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Renewable Energy Chapter 7 Energy from Biomass biomass plant material, manure, or any other organic matter that is used as an energy source Biomass is a major source of energy in many developing countries. Bacteria that decompose the organic matter produce gases, such as methane that can be burned. Liquid fuels, such as ethanol, also form from the action of bacteria on biomass. More than half of all trees that are cut down are used as fuel for heating or cooking.

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Renewable Energy Chapter 7 Reading check Name three sources of renewable energy.

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Renewable Energy Chapter 7 Reading check, continued Name three sources of renewable energy. Answers may vary but should include three of the following: geothermal, solar, hydroelectric, and biomass.

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Renewable Energy Chapter 7 Energy from Wind Wind energy is now being used to produce electricity in locations that have constant wind. Wind farms may have hundreds of giant wind turbines that can produce enough energy to meet the electricity needs of entire communities. Wind generators are not practical everywhere. Because the wind does not always blow, wind energy cannot be depended on as an energy source for every location.

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Renewable Energy Chapter 7 How a Hydroelectric Dam Generates Electricity The diagram below shows how dams generate electricity.

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 7 Tidal Energy Section 3 Renewable Energy

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Resources and Conservation Chapter 7 Objectives Describe two environmental impacts of mining and the use of fossil fuels. Explain two ways the environmental impacts of mining can be reduced. Identify three ways that you can conserve natural resources.

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Resources and Conservation Chapter 7 Resources and Conservation The limited supply of fossil fuels and other traditional energy resources has inspired research into possible new energy resources. Scientists are studying how the use of traditional energy sources affects Earth’s ecosystems. They estimate that the worldwide coal reserves will last about 200 years, and within 20 years, humans will have used half of Earth’s oil supply. We have also learned that mining can damage or destroy fragile ecosystems. Also, fossil fuels and nuclear power may add pollution to Earth’s air, water, and soil.

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Resources and Conservation Chapter 7 Environmental Impacts of Mining Mining can cause a variety of environmental problems. Mining may cause both air and noise pollution, water pollution, increased erosion and soil degradation, formation of sink holes, and the destruction to wildlife habitats. Because fires in coal mines are difficult to put out, they are commonly left to burn out, which may take several decades or centuries.

51 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Resources and Conservation Chapter 7 Environmental Impacts of Mining, continued Mining Regulations The United States has federal and state laws that regulate the operation of mines, and prevent mining operations from contaminating local air, water, and soil resources. All mining operations also comply with the federal Endangered Species Act, which protects threatened or endangered species and their habitats from being destroyed. Mine Reclamation Reclamation helps reduce the long-lasting environmental impact of mining. Companies are required to return mined land to its original condition after mining is completed.

52 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Resources and Conservation Chapter 7 Fossil Fuels and the Environment Fossil-fuel procurement affects the environment and contributes to air pollution. Strip mining removes plants and topsoil. The exposed land often erodes quickly, creating runoffs of acid rain into nearby rivers and streams. Burning coal releases large amounts of sulfur dioxide, SO 2, into the atmosphere. When SO 2 combines with water in the air, acid precipitation forms. The burning of gasoline in cars is a major contributor to air pollution.

53 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Resources and Conservation Chapter 7 Reading check Name two ways the use of fossil fuels affects the environment.

54 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Resources and Conservation Chapter 7 Reading check, continued Name two ways the use of fossil fuels affects the environment. The use of fossil fuels affects the environment when coal is mined from the surface, which destroys the land. When fossil fuels are burned, they affect the environment by creating air pollution.

55 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 7 Conservation Section 4 Resources and Conservation

56 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Resources and Conservation Chapter 7 Conservation conservation the preservation and wise use of natural resources Conservation can help reduce the environmental damage and amount of pollution that can result from the mining and use of natural resources. By conserving natural resources, people can ensure that limited natural resources last longer.

57 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Resources and Conservation Chapter 7 Conservation, continued Mineral Conservation recycling the process of recovering valuable or useful materials from waste or scrap; the process of reusing some items Recycling requires energy, but recycling uses less energy than the mining and manufacturing of new resources does. Another way to conserve minerals is to use other abundant or renewable materials in place of scarce or nonrenewable materials.

58 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Resources and Conservation Chapter 7 Conservation, continued Fossil-Fuel Conservation Fossil fuels can be conserved by reducing the amount of energy used every day. Reducing the amount of driving, insulation for a house, energy- efficient appliances, all help conserve energy. Conservation of Other Natural Resources Some scientists estimate that by the year 2050, the world will have a critical shortage of freshwater resources.

59 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 7 Recycling Section 4 Resources and Conservation

60 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Maps in Action Chapter 7 Maps in Action Wind Power in the United States

61 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Resources and Energy Chapter 7 Brain Food Video Quiz

62 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice 1.Which of the following is an example of a nonmetal mineral resource? A. gold B. quartz C. aluminum D. graphite Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

63 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1.Which of the following is an example of a nonmetal mineral resource? A. gold B. quartz C. aluminum D. graphite Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

64 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2.Nonmetal are identified by their F. ability to conduct heat G. shiny surfaces H.ability to conduct electricity I. dull surfaces Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

65 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2.Nonmetal are identified by their F.ability to conduct heat G.shiny surfaces H.ability to conduct electricity I.dull surfaces Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

66 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3.A mineral deposit called a lode is formed by A. metal fragment deposited in stream beds B. layers accumulating in cooling magma C. hot mineral solutions in cracks in rock D. precipitation of minerals from seawater Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

67 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3.A mineral deposit called a lode is formed by A. metal fragment deposited in stream beds B. layers accumulating in cooling magma C. hot mineral solutions in cracks in rock D. precipitation of minerals from seawater Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

68 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4.Which of the following is an example of a nonrenewable resource? F.natural gas G.sunlight H.falling water I.wind Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

69 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4.Which of the following is an example of a nonrenewable resource? F.natural gas G.sunlight H.falling water I.wind Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

70 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 5.A material from which mineral resources can be mined profitably is a(n) A.gemstone B.ore C.nodule D.renewable resource Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

71 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 5.A material from which mineral resources can be mined profitably is a(n) A.gemstone B.ore C.nodule D.renewable resource Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

72 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response 6.Federal and state laws require mining companies to return land to its original condition or better than its original condition when mining operations are completed. What is this process called? Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

73 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response, continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7 reclamation 6.Federal and state laws require mining companies to return land to its original condition or better than its original condition when mining operations are completed. What is this process called?

74 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response, continued 7.What are the three forms of fossil fuels, and what form does each one take? Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

75 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response, continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7 Answers may vary but may include glass, paper, plastic, aluminium, and rubber 7.What are the three forms of fossil fuels, and what form does each one take?

76 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills Read the passage below. Then, answer questions 9/11. Fossil Fuels All fossil fuels form from the buried remains of ancient organisms. But different types of fossil fuels form in different ways and from different types of organisms. Petroleum and natural gas form mainly from the remains of microscopic sea life. When these organisms die, their remains collect on the ocean floor, where they are buried by sediment. Over time, the sediment slowly becomes rock and traps the organic remains. Through physical and chemical changes over millions of years, the remains became petroleum and natural gas. Gradually, more rocks form above the rocks that contain the fossil fuels. Under the pressure of overlying rocks and sediments, the fossil fuels are able to move through permeable rocks. Permeable rocks are rocks that allow fluids, such as petroleum and permeable rocks become reservoirs that hold petroleum and natural gas. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

77 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 9.What process causes organic remains to turn into fossil fuels? A.pressure caused by overlying rocks and sediments B.the constant layering of remains from microscopic sea life C.millions of years of physical and chemical changes D.the movement of fluids through layers of permeable rock Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

78 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7 9.What process causes organic remains to turn into fossil fuels? A.pressure caused by overlying rocks and sediments B.the constant layering of remains from microscopic sea life C.millions of years of physical and chemical changes D.the movement of fluids through layers of permeable rock

79 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 10.Which of the following statements can be inferred from the information in the passage? F.Fossil fuel formation is ongoing, and current remains may become petroleum in the future. G.Fossil fuel formation happened millions of years ago and n longer takes place today. H.Current petroleum and natural gas reservoirs are found only beneath the ocean floor. I.Permeable rocks are also a good place to find other fossil fuels, such as coal. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

80 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 10.Which of the following statements can be inferred from the information in the passage? F.Fossil fuel formation is ongoing, and current remains may become petroleum in the future. G.Fossil fuel formation happened millions of years ago and n longer takes place today. H.Current petroleum and natural gas reservoirs are found only beneath the ocean floor. I.Permeable rocks are also a good place to find other fossil fuels, such as coal. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

81 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 11.Why do we consider petroleum and natural gas to be nonrenewable resources? Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

82 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 11.Why do we consider petroleum and natural gas to be nonrenewable resources? Because the process to replenish petroleum and natural gas takes millions of years, these resources are considered nonrenewable. Nonrenewable resources are resources that form at a much slower rate than the rate at which they are consumed. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

83 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics Use the figure below to answer questions The graph below illustrates the sources of energy used in the United States since Future statistics are predicted based on current rends and technology development. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

84 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 12.Which of the following is the main reason that coal became a more widely used energy source than wood in the mid-1800s? A.Coal burns easier than wood does. B.Coal is a renewable resource, unlike wood. C.Coal is a more efficient energy-producer than wood. D.Coal produces fewer byproducts and waste than wood does. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

85 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 12.Which of the following is the main reason that coal became a more widely used energy source than wood in the mid-1800s? A.Coal burns easier than wood does. B.Coal is a renewable resource, unlike wood. C.Coal is a more efficient energy-producer than wood. D.Coal produces fewer byproducts and waste than wood does. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

86 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 13.Evaluate reasons why nuclear power is predicted to peak in usage around the year 2025, and then steadily decline in usage? Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

87 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued Answers should include: understanding that technology carries both benefits and risks; nuclear power is powerful, but controversial, energy source; nuclear power has dangerous, long-lasting byproducts and the potential for serious accidents; nuclear power produces radioactive waste, which remains hazardous for thousands of years; nuclear power also creates the potential for a nuclear meltdown, which could release radioactivity into the atmosphere, having a direct and detrimental affect on the health of local populations and globally with movement of global weather patterns; safer, cleaner, renewable resources are currently not as effective as nuclear power; renewable resources are predicted to replace nuclear power as they become more efficient. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7 13.Evaluate reasons why nuclear power is predicted to peak in usage around the year 2025, and then steadily decline in usage?

88 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics Use the figure below to answer question 14. The table below shows common minerals and their uses. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

89 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 14.Use your everyday knowledge of automobiles to describe the part of an automobile for which each mineral listed in the table may be used. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

90 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 14.Use your everyday knowledge of automobiles to describe the part of an automobile for which each mineral listed in the table may be used. All the minerals listed above might be used in the car manufacturing as follows: gold for computers and electronics, galena for car batteries, quartz for windows or light coverings, sulfur for tires, graphite for paint, hematite for the body and framework, and chalcopyrite for wiring. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 7

91 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Formation of Ores and Placer Deposits Chapter 7

92 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Types of Coal Chapter 7

93 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Oil Traps Chapter 7

94 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu A Nuclear Fission Reaction Chapter 7

95 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How a Hydroelectric Dam Generates Electricity Chapter 7

96 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Wind Power in the United States Chapter 7


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